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Table 4 Adjusteda odds ratios or percent differences of specific gravity-corrected urinary organophosphate ester metabolite concentrations

From: Predictors and reproducibility of urinary organophosphate ester metabolite concentrations during pregnancy and associations with birth outcomes in an urban population

Characteristics BCIPP
OR (95% CI)
BDCIPP
% diff (95% CI)
DPHP
% diff (95% CI)
ip-PPP
% diff (95% CI)
tb-PPP
% diff (95% CI)
Sociodemographic
 Maternal age (years; centered) 1.02 (0.95, 1.10) −4.48 (−7.98, −0.85) −0.29 (−3.18, 2.69) −1.17 (− 3.47, 1.18) 1.08 (− 4.82, 7.34)
 Maternal BMI (kg/m2) 0.99 (0.96, 1.03) 3.34 (1.33, 5.39) 0.39 (−1.74, 2.55) 1.25 (− 0.29, 2.81) 1.53 (−3.03, 6.31)
Maternal race/ethnicity
 White, n = 48 1 (ref) 0 (ref) 0 (ref) 0 (ref) 0 (ref)
 Non-white, n = 42 1.43 (0.65, 3.16) 22.5 (−21.5, 91.3) −28.0 (−52.6, 9.20) 4.58 (− 23.4, 42.8) −12.0 (−57.2, 81.0)
Maternal education (highest level)
 High school diploma or less, n = 18 1 (ref) 0 (ref) 0 (ref) 0 (ref) 0 (ref)
 Less than Bachelor’s degree, n = 18 0.91 (0.31, 2.66) 13.4 (−35.4, 98.9) 47.0 (−9.81, 139.6) 19.8 (25.3, 92.0) 331.9 (60.9, 1059.5)
 Bachelor’s degree or higher, n = 54 1.22 (0.42, 3.57) 48.9 (−20.9, 180.3) 19.8 (−28.4, 100.5) 63.1 (5.48, 152.1) 81.3 (−46.8, 518.1)
Parity
 Nulliparous, n = 44 1 (ref) 0 (ref) 0 (ref) 0 (ref) 0 (ref)
 Parous, n = 46 0.53 (0.26, 1.10) 31.0 (−11.2, 93.1) 29.8 (−8.88, 85.0) 37.2 (3.74, 81.4) −7.91 (− 54.8, 87.5)
Trimester
 First (<  13 weeks), n = 27b 1 (ref) 0 (ref) 0 (ref) 0 (ref) 0 (ref)
 Second (13–27 weeks), n = 133 0.80 (0.32, 2.01) 1.14 (− 30.5, 47.2) 86.9 (25.0, 179.6) 3.26 (−23.0, 38.6) − 41.9 (− 74.3, 31.5)
 Third (28 weeks to delivery), n = 52 0.45 (0.14, 1.45) −10.8 (− 40.2, 32.8) 108.8 (33.5, 226.7) − 12.7 (− 40.1, 27.4) 12.1 (−51.0, 156.5)
Time at collection (hours)
 Before 11 am, n = 74b 1 (ref) 0 (ref) 0 (ref) 0 (ref) 0 (ref)
 Between 11 am and 1:59 pm, n = 79 0.71 (0.35, 1.44) 1.05 (−24.9, 36.0) −2.57 (− 27.1, 30.3) −7.31 (− 27.7, 18.7) −36.6 (−64.2, 12.1)
 At or after 2 pm, n = 59 0.59 (0.25, 1.39) −38.0 (−56.1, − 12.3) −25.1 (−44.7, 1.44) −36.7 (− 51.1, − 18.0) −29.8 (−63.6, 35.1)
Season of sample collection
 Fall, n = 52b 1 (ref) 0 (ref) 0 (ref) 0 (ref) 0 (ref)
 Winter, n = 85 0.64 (0.27, 1.52) − 24.4 (−44.1, 2.14) − 17.4 (− 39.8, 13.4) − 30.3 (−49.8, − 3.38) −33.9 (−66.7, 31.2)
 Spring, n = 57 0.47 (0.17, 1.29) 4.87 (− 28.3, 53.3) − 11.2 (− 40.7, 33.1) 4.33 (− 25.4, 45.8) 32.2 (− 41.4, 198.2)
 Summer, n = 18 0.45 (0.15, 1.31) 7.37 (−42.8, 101.5) 22.1 (− 32.0, 119.1) 9.47 (−22.6, 54.9) − 15.1 (−68.4, 128.5)
Coefficient of determination (R2)
 Sociodemographic only 10.1 27.4 11.1 12.9 12.4
Environmental/Behavioral
 Frequency of vacuuming home
  Never/yearly, n = 17   0 (ref)    
  Monthly, n = 18   −58.6 (−77.4, −24.0)    
  Daily/weekly, n = 55   −47.8 (−68.6, −13.3)    
 Frequency of mopping home
  Never/yearly, n = 19   0 (ref) 0 (ref) 0 (ref) 0 (ref)
  Monthly, n = 25   −1.04 (−34.5, 49.4) 24.2 (−21.2, 95.7) −23.8 (−43.0, 1.93) 38.7 (−42.1, 232.2)
  Daily/weekly, n = 46   41.7 (− 16.8, 141.0) 20.8 (−21.1, 85.1) 18.2 (− 18.0, 70.3) 23.1 (−52.2, 216.7)
 New furniture (within past year)
  No, n = 68 - 71c 1 (ref)   0 (ref)   
  Yes, n = 19–22 0.67 (0.29, 1.55)   31.0 (−9.6, 89.8)   
 New bedding (within past year)
  No, n = 52 - 54c 1 (ref)    0 (ref)  
  Yes, n = 36–38 0.49 (0.23, 1.04)    −23.3 (−41.8, 1.07)  
 # of televisions in household
   < 2, n = 26   0 (ref)    
   2+, n = 64   19.4 (−31.4, 107.6)    
 # of computers or tablets in household
   < 2, n = 16   0 (ref) 0 (ref)   0 (ref)
   2+, n = 74   15.6 (−31.4, 94.7) −26.6 (−54.5, 18.3)   −33.5 (−75.1, 77.5)
Coefficient of determination (R2)
 Sociodemographic +      
 Environmental/behavioral 14.0 36.8 13.3 17.4 13.5
  1. Abbreviations: BCIPP Bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate; BDCIPP Bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate; CI Confidence interval; diff Difference; DPHP Diphenyl phosphate; ip-PPP Isopropyl phenyl phenyl phosphate; OR Odds ratio; tb-PPP Tert-butyl-phenyl phenyl phosphate
  2. a Percent difference or odds ratio estimated from multivariable linear or logistic regression model estimated by generalized estimating equations with unstructured covariance and robust Huber-White sandwich standard errors
  3. b Sample size within levels of these categorical variables are based on samples, not women, since some provided multiple samples over time
  4. c Number of individuals within category vary by imputation