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Table 1 Description of Cases and Controls

From: Prenatal exposure to pesticides and risk for holoprosencephaly: a case-control study

Characteristic

Cases (%)

Controls (%)

P- Valuea

Sex

  

0.13

 Male

34 (40.5)

26 (54.2)

 

 Female

50 (59.5)

22 (45.8)

 

Maternal age

  

0.80

 < 35 years

55 (72.4)

36 (75.0)

 

 ≥ 35

21 (27.6)

12 (25.0)

 

Paternal age

  

0.31

 < 35 years

49 (66.2)

28 (57.1)

 

 ≥ 35

25 (33.8)

21 (42.9)

 

Residential location

  

0.60

 Urban

50 (58.8)

36 (66.7)

 

 Rural

32 (37.6)

17 (31.5)

 

 Both

3 (3.5)

1 (1.9)

 

Alcohol consumptionb

  

0.06

 No

29 (38.2)

12 (22.2)

 

 Yes

47 (61.8)

42 (77.8)

 

     Before 3 months

      No

32 (41.6)

13 (24.1)

 

       Yes

45 (58.4)

41 (75.9)

 

     1st Trimester

      No

68 (89.5)

45 (83.3)

 

      Yes

8 (10.5)

9 (16.7)

 

     2nd Trimester

      No

74 (97.4)

50 (92.6)

 

       Yes

2 (2.6)

4 (7.4)

 

     3rd Trimester

      No

72 (94.7)

46 (85.2)

 

      Yes

4 (5.3)

8 (14.8)

 

Smoking

  

0.28

 No

68 (86.1)

50 (92.6)

 

 Yes

11 (13.9)

4 (7.4)

 

     Before 3 months

      No

68 (86.1)

50 (92.6)

 

      Yes

11 (13.9)

4 (7.4)

 

     1st Trimester

      No

73 (92.4)

52 (96.3)

 

      Yes

6 (7.6)

2 (3.7)

 

     2nd Trimester

      No

78 (98.7)

52 (96.3)

 

      Yes

1 (1.3)

2 (3.7)

 

     3rd Trimester

      No

78 (98.7)

52 (96.3)

 

      Yes

1 (1.3)

2 (3.7)

 

Folic acid supplement intakec

  

0.08

 No

4 (10.3)

1 (1.9)

 

 Yes

35 (89.7)

52 (98.1)

 

     Before 3 months

      No

21 (53.8)

18 (34.0)

 

      Yes

18 (46.2)

35 (66.0)

 

     1st month

      No

13 (37.1)

5 (10.4)

 

      Yes

22 (62.9)

43 (89.6)

 

     2nd month

      No

6 (17.1)

3 (6.2)

 

      Yes

29 (82.9)

45 (93.8)

 

     3rd month

      No

7 (20.0)

4 (8.3)

 

      Yes

28 (80.0)

44 (91.7)

 

     2nd trimester

          No

8 (22.9)

5 (10.4)

 

          Yes

27 (77.1)

43 (89.6)

 

     3rd trimester

      No

8 (22.9)

7 (14.6)

 

      Yes

27 (77.1)

41 (85.4)

 

Time since delivery to survey (median years)

3.58

2.33

0.04

4-Gene Screen Status

 Positive (%)

13 (23.6)

NC

NC

 SHH

2 (15.4)

NC

 

 ZIC2

6 (46.2)

NC

 

 SIX3

5 (38.5)

NC

 

 TGIF

0 (0.0)

NC

 

     Negative (%)

42 (76.4)

NC

 
  1. Note: NC Not calculated
  2. aP-value based on Fischer’s exact test or simple logistic regression
  3. bOne drink = 1 12 oz. beer, 1 glass 4 oz. wine, or 1 oz. or 1 shot liquor (alone or in a mixed drink)
  4. cVitamin or supplement containing at least 400 mg folic acid or prenatal vitamin; intake during the three months before pregnancy and/or during pregnancy