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Table 1 Description of Cases and Controls

From: Prenatal exposure to pesticides and risk for holoprosencephaly: a case-control study

Characteristic Cases (%) Controls (%) P- Valuea
Sex    0.13
 Male 34 (40.5) 26 (54.2)  
 Female 50 (59.5) 22 (45.8)  
Maternal age    0.80
 < 35 years 55 (72.4) 36 (75.0)  
 ≥ 35 21 (27.6) 12 (25.0)  
Paternal age    0.31
 < 35 years 49 (66.2) 28 (57.1)  
 ≥ 35 25 (33.8) 21 (42.9)  
Residential location    0.60
 Urban 50 (58.8) 36 (66.7)  
 Rural 32 (37.6) 17 (31.5)  
 Both 3 (3.5) 1 (1.9)  
Alcohol consumptionb    0.06
 No 29 (38.2) 12 (22.2)  
 Yes 47 (61.8) 42 (77.8)  
     Before 3 months
      No 32 (41.6) 13 (24.1)  
       Yes 45 (58.4) 41 (75.9)  
     1st Trimester
      No 68 (89.5) 45 (83.3)  
      Yes 8 (10.5) 9 (16.7)  
     2nd Trimester
      No 74 (97.4) 50 (92.6)  
       Yes 2 (2.6) 4 (7.4)  
     3rd Trimester
      No 72 (94.7) 46 (85.2)  
      Yes 4 (5.3) 8 (14.8)  
Smoking    0.28
 No 68 (86.1) 50 (92.6)  
 Yes 11 (13.9) 4 (7.4)  
     Before 3 months
      No 68 (86.1) 50 (92.6)  
      Yes 11 (13.9) 4 (7.4)  
     1st Trimester
      No 73 (92.4) 52 (96.3)  
      Yes 6 (7.6) 2 (3.7)  
     2nd Trimester
      No 78 (98.7) 52 (96.3)  
      Yes 1 (1.3) 2 (3.7)  
     3rd Trimester
      No 78 (98.7) 52 (96.3)  
      Yes 1 (1.3) 2 (3.7)  
Folic acid supplement intakec    0.08
 No 4 (10.3) 1 (1.9)  
 Yes 35 (89.7) 52 (98.1)  
     Before 3 months
      No 21 (53.8) 18 (34.0)  
      Yes 18 (46.2) 35 (66.0)  
     1st month
      No 13 (37.1) 5 (10.4)  
      Yes 22 (62.9) 43 (89.6)  
     2nd month
      No 6 (17.1) 3 (6.2)  
      Yes 29 (82.9) 45 (93.8)  
     3rd month
      No 7 (20.0) 4 (8.3)  
      Yes 28 (80.0) 44 (91.7)  
     2nd trimester
          No 8 (22.9) 5 (10.4)  
          Yes 27 (77.1) 43 (89.6)  
     3rd trimester
      No 8 (22.9) 7 (14.6)  
      Yes 27 (77.1) 41 (85.4)  
Time since delivery to survey (median years) 3.58 2.33 0.04
4-Gene Screen Status
 Positive (%) 13 (23.6) NC NC
 SHH 2 (15.4) NC  
 ZIC2 6 (46.2) NC  
 SIX3 5 (38.5) NC  
 TGIF 0 (0.0) NC  
     Negative (%) 42 (76.4) NC  
  1. Note: NC Not calculated
  2. aP-value based on Fischer’s exact test or simple logistic regression
  3. bOne drink = 1 12 oz. beer, 1 glass 4 oz. wine, or 1 oz. or 1 shot liquor (alone or in a mixed drink)
  4. cVitamin or supplement containing at least 400 mg folic acid or prenatal vitamin; intake during the three months before pregnancy and/or during pregnancy