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Table 4 Associations between PFAS concentrations in early pregnancy and preterm birth

From: Perfluoroalkyl substances exposure in early pregnancy and preterm birth in singleton pregnancies: a prospective cohort study

PFAS (ng/ml)Overall preterm birthSpontaneous preterm birthIndicated preterm birth
Npreterm = 136/Nterm2713Npreterm = 97/Nterm = 2713Npreterm = 39/Nterm = 2713
OR (95% CI)aORa (95% CI)OR (95% CI)aORa (95% CI)OR (95% CI)aORa (95% CI)
PFOA0.93 (0.62, 1.40)0.92 (0.61, 1.33)0.74 (0.45, 1.20)0.73 (0.45, 1.19)1.63 (0.78, 3.39)1.71 (0.80, 3.67)
PFNA0.85 (0.61, 1.18)0.86 (0.61, 1.20)0.81 (0.55, 1.19)0.82 (0.56, 1.22)0.94 (0.52, 1.71)0.99 (0.53, 1.86)
PFDA0.86 (0.65, 1.14)0.88 (0.66, 1.17)0.79 (0.57, 1.10)0.80 (0.58, 1.12)1.06 (0.64, 1.76)1.14 (0.67, 1.93)
PFUA0.79 (0.59, 1.05)0.82 (0.61, 1.10)0.77 (0.55, 1.07)0.78 (0.56, 1.10)0.83 (0.50, 1.41)0.93 (0.54, 1.61)
PFOS0.88 (0.64, 1.19)0.86 (0.63, 1.17)0.79 (0.55, 1.14)0.77 (0.53, 1.11)1.12 (0.65, 1.95)1.13 (0.64, 2.01)
PFHxS1.16 (0.80, 1.69)1.16 (0.79, 1.71)1.05 (0.67, 1.65)1.03 (0.65, 1.63)1.45 (0.76, 2.69)1.58 (0.82, 3.05)
PFHpA0.96 (0.80, 1.16)0.95 (0.78, 1.15)0.93 (0.74, 1.16)0.91 (0.72, 1.14)1.04 (0.74, 1.47)1.06 (0.74, 1.53)
PFBS1.09 (0.85, 1.39)1.06 (0.83, 1.37)0.94 (0.70, 1.26)0.93 (0.69, 1.25)1.49 (0.96, 2.32)1.44 (0.91, 2.26)
PFDoA0.71 (0.50, 1.01)0.73 (0.51, 1.04)0.82 (0.66, 1.01)0.82 (0.66, 1.03)0.73 (0.39, 1.35)0.82 (0.53, 1.58)
  1. Note: PFAS concentrations were measured in maternal plasma and have been ln-transformed before entering into the model
  2. a Adjusted for maternal age (years), pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2), parity (0, ≥ 1), parental educational levels (≤ 12, > 12 years), pregnancy complicating with chronic diseases (no, yes), infant sex (male, female) and gestational age at blood drawn (weeks)