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Table 3 Excess risks and 95% confidence intervals of emergency ambulance dispatches associated with each 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5, PM2.5–10, and PM10 at lag03, stratified by gender, age and season*

From: Relationship between different particle size fractions and all-cause and cause-specific emergency ambulance dispatches

Pollutants Stratum All-cause Cardiovascular Respiratory
PM2.5
  Gender
   Male 1.01 (0.56, 1.46) 0.38 (−0.78, 1.55) 0.80 (−0.67, 2.29)
   Female 0.54 (0.08, 0.99) 0.48 (−0.49, 1.45) 1.03 (−0.14, 2.22)
  Age
    < 65 0.63 (0.14, 1.13) 0.37 (−0.71, 1.47) −0.67 (−2.18, 0.86)
    ≥ 65 1.06 (0.61, 1.51) 0.99 (0.02, 1.97) 1.81 (0.73, 2.89)
  Season
   Warm 0.84 (0.31, 1.37) 0.74 (−0.62, 2.12) 1.93 (0.25, 3.64)
   Cold 1.02 (0.65, 1.39) 1.06 (0.17, 1.95) 2.05 (0.93, 3.17)
PM2.5–10
  Sex
   Male 1.79 (0.88, 2.71) 1.24 (−0.68, 3.20) 1.93 (− 0.43, 4.34)
   Female 1.45 (0.54, 2.38) 2.15 (−0.18, 4.53) 2.72 (−0.24, 5.76)
  Age
    < 65 0.54 (−0.45, 1.54) 2.03 (0.10, 4.01) −0.42 (−3.42, 2.66)
    ≥ 65 2.62 (1.72, 3.54) 2.32 (0.14, 4.55) 3.52 (1.34, 5.74)
  Season
   Warm 2.77 (1.41, 4.15) 5.60 (2.08, 9.23) 4.36 (2.15, 6.61)
   Cold 1.84 (1.11, 2.59) 1.58 (−0.15, 3.33) 3.82 (− 0.51, 8.34)
PM10
  Sex
   Male 0.73 (0.41, 1.05) 0.40 (−0.29, 1.08) 0.74 (−0.30, 1.79)
   Female 0.45 (0.13, 0.77) 0.46 (−0.36, 1.28) 0.76 (−0.07, 1.59)
  Age
    < 65 0.38 (0.03, 0.74) 0.48 (−0.29, 1.25) −0.39 (−1.46, 0.69)
    ≥ 65 0.86 (0.54, 1.18) 0.75 (0.06, 1.44) 1.34 (0.58, 2.10)
  Seasona
   Warm 0.76 (0.35, 1.17) 0.95 (−0.10, 2.01) 1.53 (0.76, 2.31)
   Cold 0.72 (0.46, 0.98) 0.71 (0.10, 1.32) 1.50 (0.20, 2.82)
  1. *Data in bold indicated that the differences between the effect estimates of the strata were statistically significant (p < 0.05)
  2. a Warm season was defined as April to September, and cold season was October to March