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Table 2 Characteristics of patients in the ICD database stratified by the occurrence of an appropriate ICD discharge. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation or n (%)

From: Do acute changes in ambient air pollution increase the risk of potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators?

 Appropriate ICD dischargeP-value (2-sided)
NoYes
N = 8368N = 1952
Age (year)64.43 ± 12.9865.28 ± 12.370.009
Male6510 (77.8%)1665 (85.3%)< 0.001
Current cigarette smokers1126 (13.5%)277 (14.2%)0.02
Implant indication
 Primary prevention4586 (54.8%)827 (42.4%)< 0.001
 Secondary prevention1749 (20.9%)661 (33.9%) 
 Replacement2033 (24.3%)464 (23.8%) 
Primary heart disease
 Ischemic5380 (64.3%)1282 (65.7%)< 0.001
 Dilated cardiomyopathy1821 (21.8%)460 (23.6%) 
 Other1167 (13.9%)210 (10.8%) 
 Atrial fibrillation2677 (32.0%)681 (34.9%)0.014
Documented ventricular arrhythmia
 Sustained tachycardia, Fibrillation or arrest2723 (32.5%)910 (46.6%)< 0.001
 Non-sustained tachycardia992 (11.9%)311 (15.9%) 
 None4653 (55.6%)731 (37.4%) 
Left ventricular ejection fraction
 ≤ 30%4605 (55.0%)1068 (54.7%)0.91
 31–40%1498 (17.9%)362 (18.5%) 
 > 40%1456 (17.4%)339 (17.4%) 
 Missing809 (9.7%)183 (9.4%) 
Medications
 β-adrenoreceptor antagonist7204 (86.1%)1695 (86.8%)0.39
 ACE inhibitor or ARBa6722 (80.3%)1632 (83.6%)< 0.001
 Spironolactone2120 (25.3%)520 (26.6%)0.23
 Loop diuretics4432 (53.0%)1055 (54.0%)0.39
 Digoxin1713 (20.5%)456 (23.4%)0.005
 Amiodarone1543 (18.4%)443 (22.7%)< 0.001
  1. aAngiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker