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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the study participants by sex in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2012–2013)

From: Impacts of ambient air pollution on glucose metabolism in Korean adults: a Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey study

Variables Male Female Total p-value
(n = 4267) (n = 5747) (n = 10,014)
N % N % N %
Diabetesa        < 0.0001
No 3710 86.9 5194 90.4 8904 88.9  
Yes 557 13.1 553 9.6 1110 11.1  
Age group        0.565
< 65 years 3294 77.2 4495 78.2 7789 77.8  
≥65 years 973 22.8 1252 21.8 2225 22.2  
Education level        < 0.0001
Elementary school 694 16.3 1651 28.8 2345 23.4  
Middle school 459 10.8 589 10.2 1048 10.5  
High school 1577 36.9 1858 32.3 3435 34.3  
University and over 1537 36.0 1649 28.7 3186 31.8  
Alcohol consumption        < 0.0001
No 724 17.0 2151 37.4 2875 28.7  
Less than once a week 1994 46.7 3086 53.7 5080 50.7  
More than once a week 1549 36.3 510 8.9 2059 20.6  
Physical activity        < 0.0001
No 2338 54.7 2201 38.3 4539 45.3  
Yes 1929 45.2 3546 61.7 5475 54.7  
Smoking        < 0.0001
Never smoked 873 20.5 5160 89.8 6033 60.2  
Past 1703 39.9 265 4.6 1968 19.7  
Current 1691 39.6 322 5.6 2013 20.1  
Obesity        < 0.0001
Underweight (BMI: < 18.5 kg/m2) 96 2.2 301 5.2 397 63.5  
Normal (BMI: ≥18.5 and < 25.0 kg/m2) 2601 61.0 3753 65.3 6354 4.0  
Obesity (BMI: ≥25.0 kg/m2) 1570 36.8 1693 29.5 3263 32.5  
  1. ap-values were obtained by comparing the groups using the chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test. Participants with FBG levels above 126 mg/dL or taking diabetes medications, who received insulin injections, or who had been diagnosed with DM by a physician were classified as being diabetic