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Table 4 Estimated changes in fasting blood glucose (mg/dL) and hemoglobin A1c (percentage) level per interquartile range increment of PM10, PM2.5, and NO2 in participants aged ≥65 years according to the presence of diabetes

From: Impacts of ambient air pollution on glucose metabolism in Korean adults: a Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey study

Pollutant Fasting blood glucose (mg/dL)a HbA1c (percentage points)a
β (95% CI) p-value β (95% CI) p-value
Total
PM10 (μg/m3) 0.76 (−0.18–1.71) 0.112 0.07 (0.03–0.09)* p < 0.0001
PM2.5 (μg/m3) 0.84 (−0.10–1.77) 0.078 0.09 (0.04–0.14)* p < 0.0001
NO2 (ppb) 1.09 (0.11–2.06)* 0.029 0.00 (−0.02–0.01) 0.445
No diabetes
PM10 (μg/m3) 0.23 (−0.28–0.74) 0.380 0.07 (0.01–0.12)* 0.015
PM2.5 (μg/m3) 0.36 (−0.15–0.87) 0.169 0.08 (0.03–0.14)* 0.001
NO2 (ppb) 0.39 (0.12–0.66)* 0.004 0.00 (−0.03–0.04) 0.670
Diabetes
PM10 (μg/m3) 3.64 (0.69–6.59)* 0.015 0.11 (0.02–0.20)* 0.021
PM2.5 (μg/m3) 3.96 (0.06–7.85)* 0.046 0.12 (0.03–0.20)* 0.016
NO2 (ppb) 4.92 (1.27–8.57)* 0.008 0.02 (−0.03–0.08) 0.440
  1. *p-value < 0.05. The level of fasting blood glucose (mg/dL) per interquartile range increment at a moving average of 0–6 days for PM10 and PM2.5 and at 0–7 days for NO2. The level of HbA1c (percentage points) per interquartile range increment at a moving average of 0–60 days for each pollutant. aModel 3, adjusted for sex, age, education level, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity, and daily mean temperature and humidity. CI confidence interval; PM10 particulate matter < 10 μmM, PM2.5, particulate matter < 2.5 μm; NO2 nitrogen dioxide, ppb parts per billion