Skip to main content

Table 3 Descriptive statistics of daily air pollution and outpatient hospital visits in the study area separated by the burning (January–April) and non-burning (May–December) months during 2014–2017

From: Ambient particulate matter and biomass burning: an ecological time series study of respiratory and cardiovascular hospital visits in northern Thailand

  Burning Non-Burning
  Min Max Mean SD Min Max Mean SD
Air pollutants
 PM10 (μg/m3) 5.4 371.1 74.6 42.2 1.6 137.4 26.0 13.7
 O3 (ppb) 3.6 135.1 59.5 16.9 2.0 92.4 31.7 12.8
 CO (ppm) 0 2.9 0.76 0.36 0 1.65 0.48 0.25
 NO2 (ppb) 0.1 42.4 10.8 6.2 0 29.6 5.7 3.8
 Temperature (°C) 7.8 35.8 25.4 4.1 9.3 39.0 26.2 2.8
 Relative Humidity (%) 28.0 100.0 64.9 12.1 34.5 100.0 80.7 9.2
Outpatient Hospital Visits (n)
 Chronic Lower Respiratory  Disease 6 100 41.0 21.2 3 120 34.7 18.9
  < 65 years 0 55 12.6 10.3 0 52 11.1 8.2
  ≥ 65 years 1 46 15.9 9.0 0 44 12.5 8.0
 Male 1 53 19.5 10.5 0 64 17.1 9.6
 Female 2 66 21.5 11.7 0 65 17.5 10.3
 Ischaemic Heart Disease 0 19 5.1 3.7 0 26 5.4 3.8
  < 65 years 0 9 2.3 2.0 0 13 2.3 2.0
  ≥ 65 years 0 16 2.9 2.0 0 18 3.1 2.5
 Male 0 12 2.7 2.2 0 13 2.9 2.4
 Female 0 14 2.5 2.1 0 15 2.5 2.1
 Cerebrovascular Disease 0 39 9.4 6.5 0 39 9.9 6.6
  < 65 years 0 20 4.5 3.4 0 22 4.7 3.6
  ≥ 65 years 0 19 4.9 3.8 0 21 5.2 3.8
 Male 0 18 5.2 3.7 0 21 5.5 3.9
 Female 0 22 4.2 3.4 0 18 4.4 3.4