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Table 4 Fully adjusted, categorical and linear associations between time-weighted average air pollution (10 years before index date) and risk of intracranial CNS tumors, Denmark 1989–2014

From: Intracranial tumors of the central nervous system and air pollution – a nationwide case-control study from Denmark

Exposure levels (a) NOX NO2 BC PM2.5 O3
Cntrls Cases OR (95%CI) Cntrls Cases OR Cntrls Cases OR (95%CI) Cntrls Cases OR (95%CI) Cntrls Cases OR (95%CI)
Intracranial CNS tumors
  < median 18,681 10,341 Referent 18,674 10,367   18,818 10,386 Referent 18,682 10,745 Referent 18,690 10,694 Referent
 50-94pct 16,815 9665 1.017 (0.973–1.063) 16,823 9631 1.004 (0.959–1.051) 16,692 9605 1.021 (0.977–1.068) 16,816 9263 0.991 (0.926–1.062) 16,806 9288 0.986 (0.941–1.033)
 95-99pct 1496 845 1.021 (0.927–1.126) 1495 847 1.001 (0.904–1.109) 1481 850 1.045 (0.948–1.152) 1494 865 1.069 (0.948–1.205) 1496 885 1.059 (0.960–1.168)
 ≥ 99pct 373 204 0.993 (0.828–1.191) 373 210 1.006 (0.838–1.209) 374 214 1.057 (0.884–1.265) 373 182 0.897 (0.736–1.094) 373 188 0.902 (0.748–1.088)
 per IQR    1.011 (0.992–1.030)    1.031 (0.997–1.066)    1.016 (0.996–1.037)    1.010 (0.944–1.08)    0.967 (0.934–1.002)
Malignant
  < median 8630 4828 Referent 8658 4877   8776 4887 Referent 8121 4665 Referent 8801 4945 Referent
 50-94pct 7923 4451 1.006 (0.943–1.074) 7882 4391 0.982 (0.919–1.051) 7772 4373 1.022 (0.957–1.091) 8335 4560 1.014 (0.917–1.122) 7752 4328 1.006 (0.939–1.077)
 95-99pct 677 416 1.109 (0.961–1.279) 691 415 1.047 (0.902–1.216) 681 424 1.155 (1.003–1.331) 766 470 1.192 (1.008–1.411) 685 414 1.082 (0.937–1.249)
  ≥ 99pct 167 90 0.972 (0.740–1.275) 166 102 1.070 (0.819–1.399) 168 101 1.108 (0.853–1.441) 175 90 0.981 (0.737–1.305) 159 98 1.072 (0.818–1.404)
 per IQR    1.026 (0.998–1.056)    1.042 (0.992–1.095)    1.034 (1.005–1.065)    1.021 (0.926–1.126)    0.962 (0.913–1.012)
Non-malignant
  < median 10,051 5513 Referent 10,016 5490   10,042 5499 Referent 10,561 6080 Referent 9889 5749 Referent
 50-94pct 8892 5214 1.027 (0.967–1.091) 8941 5240 1.023 (0.961–1.089) 8920 5232 1.022 (0.961–1.086) 8481 4703 0.971 (0.883–1.067) 9054 4960 0.968 (0.908–1.031)
 95-99pct 819 429 0.953 (0.834–1.090) 804 432 0.965 (0.838–1.111) 800 426 0.960 (0.839–1.099) 728 395 0.949 (0.799–1.127) 811 471 1.039 (0.909–1.188)
 ≥ 99pct 206 114 1.013 (0.793–1.294) 207 108 0.961 (0.747–1.237) 206 113 1.011 (0.791–1.292) 198 92 0.834 (0.633–1.100) 214 90 0.771 (0.593–1.002)
 per IQR    0.998 (0.972–1.025)    1.022 (0.976–1.070)    1.000 (0.972–1.028)    1.000 (0.912–1.096)    0.972 (0.926–1.021)
Glioma
  < median 6596 3713 Referent 6606 3741   6684 3754 Referent 6309 3703 Referent 6512 3734 Referent
 50-94pct 5899 3406 1.025 (0.951–1.105) 5876 3369 1.003(0.929–1.083) 5816 3352 1.036 (0.961–1.117) 6101 3379 0.929 (0.827–1.043) 5954 3338 0.991 (0.916–1.071)
 95-99pct 478 284 1.064 (0.897–1.262) 491 288 1.013(0.848–1.209) 477 294 1.129 (0.954–1.336) 561 327 0.994 (0.816–1.210) 501 313 1.101 (0.932–1.299)
 ≥ 99pct 118 62 0.925 (0.668–1.281) 118 67 0.962 (0.697–1.328) 114 65 1.022 (0.741–1.410) 120 56 0.773 (0.545–1.097) 124 80 1.100 (0.812–1.490)
 per IQR    1.017 (0.983–1.052)    1.026 (0.969–1.087)    1.028 (0.993–1.063)    0.938 (0.836–1.053)    0.973 (0.916–1.033)
Meningioma
  < median 5164 2667 Referent 5132 2608   5163 2627 Referent 5446 3099 Referent 4966 3010 Referent
 50-94pct 4409 2701 1.087 (0.869–1.122) 4450 2757 1.133 (1.036–1.239) 4429 2748 1.123 (1.030–1.224) 4210 2326 0.943 (0.827–1.075) 4569 2376 0.920 (0.841–1.007)
 95-99pct 412 234 1.045 (0.604–1.149) 410 239 1.100 (0.906–1.336) 394 225 1.085 (0.898–1.310) 340 195 0.992 (0.779–1.264) 445 226 0.922 (0.763–1.115)
  ≥ 99pct 109 55 0.934 (0.650–2.356) 102 53 1.004 (0.699–1.440) 108 57 1.036 (0.736–1.460) 98 37 0.651 (0.428–0.990) 114 45 0.748 (0.519–1.078)
 per IQR    1.009 (0.972–1.047)    1.083 (1.016–1.154)    1.016 (0.977–1.057)    1.088 (0.955–1.239)    0.923 (0.862–0.988)
Cranial Nerves
  < median 2181 1280 Referent 2167 1276   2147 1286 Referent 2309 1335 Referent 2121 1192 Referent
 50-94pct 1943 1104 0.987 (0.869–1.122) 1960 1108 0.978 (0.856–1.119) 1974 1096 0.915 (0.804–1.042) 1823 1045 1.047 (0.854–1.283) 1989 1156 0.990 (0.864–1.133)
 95-99pct 159 69 0.833 (0.604–1.149) 151 69 0.870 (0.622–1.217) 161 75 0.814 (0.596–1.111) 146 74 0.912 (0.614–1.353) 160 102 1.131 (0.840–1.522)
  ≥ 99pct 28 17 1.237 (0.650–2.356) 33 17 1.052 (0.559–1.978) 29 13 0.816 (0.408–1.635) 33 16 0.971 (0.501–1.884) 41 20 0.849 (0.476–1.517)
 per IQR    0.970 (0.908–1.036)    0.952 (0.858–1.058)    0.943 (0.879–1.011)    0.963 (0.776–1.194)    1.046 (0.936–1.169)
Malignant Non-glioma tumors of the brain
  < median 2031 1121 Referent 2040 1142   2085 1138 Referent 1851 1001 Referent 2235 1184 Referent
 50-94pct 1977 1021 1.021 (0.977–1.068) 1969 1000 0.904 (0.786–1.041) 1913 1000 0.966 (0.842–1.108) 2156 1128 1.254 (1.019–1.543) 1793 995 1.059 (0.918–1.221)
 95-99pct 189 131 1.045 (0.948–1.152) 191 125 1.153 (0.867–1.534) 197 125 1.219 (0.933–1.593) 191 139 2.033 (1.451–2.849) 184 102 1.003 (0.750–1.342)
  > =99pct 50 28 1.057 (0.884–1.265) 47 34 1.267 (0.774–2.075) 52 38 1.374 (0.867–2.177) 49 33 1.833 (1.093–3.073) 35 20 1.054 (0.587–1.893)
 per IQR    1.049 (0.996–1.106)    1.084 (0.983–1.194)    1.051 (0.996–1.110)    1.267 (1.053–1.524)    0.937 (0.846–1.037)
Non-malignant Non-glioma tumors of the brain
  < median 2709 1560 Referent 2729 1600   2739 1581 Referent 2767 1607 Referent 2856 1574 Referent
 50-94pct 2587 1433 0.958 (0.854–1.075) 2568 1397 0.894(0.793–1.008) 2560 1409 0.944 (0.840–1.060) 2526 1385 0.997 (0.828–1.201) 2501 1423 1.033 (0.915–1.167)
 95-99pct 258 127 0.875 (0.685–1.118) 252 126 0.803 (0.618–1.043) 252 131 0.909 (0.712–1.161) 256 130 0.895 (0.655–1.222) 206 142 1.282 (0.995–1.652)
  ≥ 99pct 68 42 1.074 (0.707–1.633) 73 39 0.864 (0.562–1.329) 71 41 1.000 (0.659–1.518) 73 40 1.002 (0.637–1.574) 59 23 0.743 (0.442–1.250)
 per IQR    0.995 (0.950–1.042)    0.969(0.890–1.054)    1.003 (0.956–1.053)    0.897 (0.759–1.060)    1.012 (0.925–1.107)
  1. a: interquartile range (IQR) and percentiles calculated among all controls. For specific values, see Table 2
  2. b: Matched on age, sex and month of birth and adjusted for marital status, occupational status, personal income, region of origin and area level information on % of parish population with income in lowest quartile, unemployed, manual labor, retired, basic education, living in social housing, owning their own dwelling, single parent families, previously convicted, of Danish origin