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Table 5 Effects of confounder adjustment on linear associations between time-weighted average air pollution (10 years before index date) and risk of intracranial CNS tumors, Denmark 1989–2014

From: Intracranial tumors of the central nervous system and air pollution – a nationwide case-control study from Denmark

Air pollutant IQR (μg/m3) Model 1a Model 2b Model 3c
OR pr IQR 95%CI OR pr IQR 95%CI OR pr IQR 95%CI
Intracranial CNS tumors(Cases: 21055 Controls: 37356)
 NOx 18.86 1.020 (1.004–1.036) 1.025 (1.009–1.041) 1.011 (0.992–1.030)
 NO2 10.78 1.041 (1.017–1.066) 1.052 (1.027–1.077) 1.031 (0.997–1.066)
 BC 0.39 1.025 (1.008–1.042) 1.030 (1.013–1.048) 1.016 (0.996–1.037)
 PM2.5 5.39 1.042 (0.981–1.107) 1.053 (0.991–1.119) 1.010 (0.944–1.080)
 O3 9.72 0.957 (0.934–0.981) 0.948 (0.924–0.972) 0.967 (0.934–1.002)
Malignant(Cases: 9785 Controls: 17397)
 NOx 18.86 1.025 (1.001–1.049) 1.035 (1.011–1.060) 1.026 (0.998–1.056)
 NO2 10.78 1.033 (0.999–1.069) 1.051 (1.015–1.089) 1.042 (0.992–1.095)
 BC 0.39 1.030 (1.006–1.056) 1.040 (1.015–1.066) 1.034 (1.005–1.065)
 PM2.5 5.39 1.022 (0.936–1.116) 1.041 (0.953–1.138) 1.021 (0.926–1.126)
 O3 9.72 0.968 (0.934–1.003) 0.952 (0.918–0.987) 0.962 (0.913–1.012)
Non-malignant(Cases: 11270 Controls: 19968)
 NOx 18.86 1.015 (0.993–1.037) 1.017 (0.995–1.039) 0.998 (0.972–1.025)
 NO2 10.78 1.048 (1.015–1.982) 1.054 (1.020–1.089) 1.022 (0.976–1.070)
 BC 0.39 1.020 (0.997–1.044) 1.022 (0.998–1.046) 1.000 (0.972–1.028)
 PM2.5 5.39 1.061 (0.977–1.153) 1.065 (0.980–1.158) 1.000 (0.912–1.096)
 O3 9.72 0.948 (0.917–0.980) 0.943 (0.911–0.975) 0.972 (0.926–1.021)
Glioma(Cases: 7465 Controls: 13091)
 NOx 18.86 1.021 (0.994–1.050) 1.034 (1.005–1.063) 1.017 (0.983–1.052)
 NO2 10.78 1.031 (0.990–1.073) 1.052 (1.010–1.096) 1.026 (0.969–1.087)
 BC 0.39 1.029 (1.000–1.059) 1.041 (1.011–1.071) 1.028 (0.993–1.063)
 PM2.5 5.39 0.964 (0.868–1.069) 0.984 (0.886–1.093) 0.938 (0.836–1.053)
 O3 9.72 0.968 (0.929–1.009) 0.949 (0.909–0.990) 0.973 (0.916–1.033)
Meningioma(Cases: 5657 Controls: 10094)
 NOx 18.86 1.046 (1.014–1.078) 1.044 (1.012–1.077) 1.009 (0.972–1.047)
 NO2 10.78 1.133 (1.083–1.185) 1.132 (1.082–1.185) 1.083 (1.016–1.154)
 BC 0.39 1.058 (1.024–1.093) 1.056 (1.022–1.092) 1.016 (0.977–1.057)
 PM2.5 5.39 1.211 (1.076–1.363) 1.202 (1.067–1.354) 1.088 (0.955–1.239)
 O3 9.72 0.878 (0.837–0.920) 0.878 (0.836–0.921) 0.923 (0.862–0.988)
Cranial Nerves(Cases: 2470 Controls: 4311)
 NOx 18.86 0.953 (0.903–1.005) 0.960 (0.909–1.014) 0.970 (0.908–1.036)
 NO2 10.78 0.940 (0.873–1.011) 0.945 (0.877–1.019) 0.952 (0.858–1.058)
 BC 0.39 0.941 (0.889–0.996) 0.946 (0.893–1.002) 0.943 (0.879–1.011)
 PM2.5 5.39 0.966 (0.799–1.168) 0.969 (0.799–1.175) 0.963 (0.776–1.194)
 O3 9.72 1.057 (0.979–1.141) 1.054 (0.975–1.141) 1.046 (0.936–1.169)
Malignant Non-glioma tumors of brain proper(Cases: 2301 Controls: 4247)
 NOx 18.86 1.034 (0.991–1.080) 1.038 (0.994–1.084) 1.049 (0.996–1.106)
 NO2 10.78 1.036 (0.969–1.107) 1.047 (0.978–1.120) 1.084 (0.983–1.194)
 BC 0.39 1.035 (0.989–1.082) 1.038 (0.992–1.086) 1.051 (0.996–1.110)
 PM2.5 5.39 1.179 (0.998–1.393) 1.191 (1.007–1.409) 1.267 (1.053–1.524)
O3 9.72 0.975 (0.910–1.045) 0.965 (0.899–1.035) 0.937 (0.846–1.037)
Non-malignant Non-glioma tumors of brain proper(Cases: 3162 Controls: 5622)
 NOx 18.86 1.001 (0.964–1.040) 1.007 (0.969–1.047) 0.995 (0.950–1.042)
 NO2 10.78 0.990 (0.933–1.049) 1.005 (0.947–1.067) 0.969 (0.890–1.054)
 BC 0.39 1.006 (0.996–1.047) 1.013 (0.972–1.055) 1.003 (0.956–1.053)
 PM2.5 5.39 0.920 (0.792–1.068) 0.947 (0.815–1.101) 0.897 (0.759–1.060)
 O3 9.72 1.000 (0.941–1.064) 0.982 (0.923–1.046) 0.994 (0.920–1.073)
  1. aCrude model, adjusted for age, sex and month of birth by matching
  2. bModel 1 with additional adjustment individual level data on marital status, occupational status, personal income, region of origin
  3. cModel 2 with additional adjustment for area level information on % of parish population with income in lowest quartile, unemployed, manual labor, retired, basic education, living in social housing, owning their own dwelling, single parent families, previously convicted, of Danish origin