Skip to main content

Table 1 Distribution of Selected Characteristics by Phase 2 Participation Status

From: Drug use disorder following early life exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water: a retrospective cohort study

Characteristic Participant
(N = 694)
Non-Participant
(N = 818)
PCE exposure status
 Both pre and postnatal exposure 363 (52.3%) 468 (57.2%)
 Only postnatal exposure 76 (11.0%) 58 (7.1%)
 Unexposed 255 (36.7%) 292 (35.7%)
Age (Phase 2, mean, sd) 41 (4) 40 (4)
White race 688 (99.1%) 802 (98.0%)
Sex
 Male 242 (34.9%) 360 (44.0%)
 Female 452 (65.1%) 458 (56.0%)
Ever smoked on a regular basis (Phase 1 data) 202 (29.4%) 343 (42.3%)
Missing 6 8
Drank 5 + (men)/4 + (women) drinks* per day, past 30 days (Phase 1 data) 80 (11.8%) 147 (18.7%)
Missing 16 32
Any drug use** (Phase 1 data) 230 (33.1%) 351 (42.9%)
Mother’s age at subject’s birth (Mean, SD) 27 (4) 27 (5)
Mother’s educational level at subject’s birth
 High school graduate or less 230 (33.2%) 340 (41.7%)
 Some college 210 (30.3%) 254 (31.1%)
 4 year college graduate or higher 253 (36.5%) 222 (27.2%)
 Missing 1 2
Father’s occupation at subject’s birth
 White collar 371 (53.9%) 370 (46.0%)
 Blue collar 211 (30.7%) 285 (35.4%)
 Other 106 (15.4%) 149 (18.5%)
 Missing 6 14
Subject’s birth weight (Mean, SD) 3423 (524) 3438 (507)
Missing 60 44
Subject’s gestational age (weeks) (Mean, SD) 40 (2) 40 (2)
Missing 29 60
Mother received prenatal care during subject’s pregnancy 663 (99.8%) 764 (99.6%)
Missing 30 51
  1. *A drink was defined as 12-oz bottle, can, or glass of beer, 4-oz glass of wine, 12-oz bottle of wine cooler, hard lemonade, or hard cider, shot of liquor straight or in a mixed drink
  2. **Included crack/cocaine, heroin, psychedelics/hallucinogens, club/designer drugs, inhalants, and Ritalin without a prescription