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Table 2 Distribution of Selected Characteristics of Subjects and Parents by PCE Exposure Status

From: Drug use disorder following early life exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water: a retrospective cohort study

Characteristic Prenatal and Early Childhood Exposure
(N = 363)
Unexposed
(N = 255)
Year of birth n % n %
 1969–1974 77 21.2% 66 25.9%
 1975–1980 191 52.6% 134 52.5%
 1981–1983 95 26.2% 55 21.6%
Current age (mean, sd) 40 (4) 41 (4)
Sex at birth
 Male 134 36.9% 79 31.0%
 Female 229 63.1% 176 69.0%
% White race 359 98.9% 253 99.2%
Current educational level
 High school graduate or less 18 5.0% 16 6.3%
 Some college 61 16.9% 49 19.3%
 Four year college grad or higher 283 78.2% 189 74.4%
 Missing 1   1  
Currently employed
 Yes 325 90.0% 226 90.4%
 No 36 10.0% 24 9.6%
 Missing 2   5  
Current marital status
 Married or cohabitating 313 86.2% 201 78.8%
 Separated, divorced, widowed, 18 5.0% 24 9.4%
 Never married 32 8.8% 30 11.8%
Ever had solvent-exposed job
 Yes 54 15.3% 34 13.7%
 No 299 84.7% 215 86.3%
 Missing 10   6  
Ever had solvent-exposed hobby
 Yes 306 85.0% 219 86.9%
 No 54 15.0% 33 13.1%
 Missing 3   3  
History of learning problem
 Yes 64 17.9% 46 18.2%
 No 293 82.1% 207 81.8%
 Missing 6   2  
History of repeating a grade
 Yes 33 9.2% 27 10.6%
 No 325 90.8% 227 89.4%
 Missing 5   1  
History of military service
 Yes 21 5.8% 17 6.7%
 No 342 94.2% 238 93.3%
History of mental disorder*
 Yes 152 42.3% 91 35.8%
 No 207 57.7% 163 64.2%
 Missing 4   1  
Mother’s age at subject’s birth
(mean sd)
27 (4) 28 (4)
Father’s age at subject’s birth
(mean, sd)
30 (6) 30 (5)
Mother’s educational level at subject’s birth
 High school graduate or less 124 34.2% 71 28.0%
 Some college 101 27.8% 91 35.8%
  > = Four year college graduate 138 38.0% 92 36.2%
 Missing 0   1  
Father’s occupation at subject’s birth
 White collar 208 57.8% 125 49.4%
 Blue collar 107 29.7% 76 30.0%
 Other 45 12.5% 52 20.6%
 Missing 3   2  
Mother received prenatal care during subject’s gestation
 Yes 352 99.7% 243 100.0%
 No 1 0.3% 0 0.0%
 Missing 10   12  
Mother smoked cigarettes during subject’s gestation
 Yes 72 23.4% 46 21.9%
 No 235 76.5% 164 78.1%
 Missing 56   45  
Mother consumed alcohol during subject’s gestation
 Yes 150 49.0% 91 43.3%
 No 156 51.0% 119 56.7%
 Missing 57   45  
Mother used cannabis during subject’s gestation
 Yes 10 3.2% 9 4.3%
 No 298 96.8% 198 95.7%
 Missing 55   48  
Mother had medical and obstetrical complications during subject’s gestation
 Yes 59 19.3% 52 25.1%
 No 246 80.7% 155 74.9%
 Missing 58   48  
Mother had occupational exposure to solvents
 Yes 45 14.8 29 14.1
 No 259 85.2 177 85.9
 Missing 59   49  
Birth weight (mean, sd)
Missing
3428 (504)
4
3406 (556)
27
Gestational age (mean, sd)
Missing
40 (3)
13
40 (2)
13
Multiple pregnancy 8 2.2% 10 3.9%
Subject breast fed
 Yes 198 64.9% 142 68.6%
 No 107 35.1% 65 31.4%
 Missing 58   48  
Number of older siblings
 0 168 46.3% 121 47.8%
 1 128 35.3% 79 31.2%
 2+ 67 18.5% 53 20.9%
 Missing 0   2  
Immediate family member was a problem drinker
 Yes 174 49.2% 103 41.9%
 No 180 50.8% 143 58.1%
 Missing 9   9  
Immediate family member had problems with drugs
 Yes 82 23.9% 54 22.3%
 No 261 76.1% 188 77.7%
 Missing 20   13  
  1. *Includes anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder, eating disorder and schizophrenia