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Table 3 Lifetime Criteria of Drug Use Disorder Following Early Life Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene-contaminated Drinking Water

From: Drug use disorder following early life exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water: a retrospective cohort study

Outcome Exposure Level % Yes (n/N) Crude Adjusted*
    RR (95% CI) GEE RR (95% CI)
Any (> = 1) Criteria Any 26.2 (95/363) 1.4 (1.0,1.8) 1.4 (1.0,1.8)
> = median 23.6 (43/182) 1.2 (0.9,1.8) 1.2 (0.8,1.7)
> 0- < median 28.7 (52/181) 1.5 (1.1,2.1) 1.5 (1.1,2.2)
None 19.2 (49/255) Reference Reference
Number of Criteria
One Criterion Any 12.4 (38/306) 1.6 (0.9,2.8) 1.6 (0.9,2.8)
> = median 11.5 (18/157) 1.5 (0.8,2.8) 1.5 (0.8,2.7)
> 0- < median 13.4 (20/149) 1.8 (1.0,3.2) 1.8 (1.0,3.4)
None 7.6 (17/223) Reference Reference
Two or More Criteria Any 17.7 (57/325) 1.3 (0.9, 1.9) 1.3 (0.9,2.0)
> = median 15.2 (25/164) 1.1 (0.7,1.8) 1.1 (0.7,1.8)
> 0- < median 19.9 (32/161) 1.5 (0.9,2.3) 1.5 (0.9,2.4)
None 13.4 (32/238) Reference Reference
Two to Three Criteria Any 6.9 (20/288) 1.2 (0.6,2.3) 0.9 (0.5,1.9)
> = median 7.3 (11/150) 1.2 (0.6,2.7) 0.9 (0.4,2.0)
> 0- < median 6.5 (9/138) 1.1 (0.5,2.5) 1.0 (0.4,2.2)
None 5.9 (13/219) Reference Reference
Four to Five Criteria Any 4.3 (12/280) 1.5 (0.6,4.0) 1.9 (0.7,5.1)
> = median 2.8 (4/143) 1.0 (0.3,3.4) 1.4 (0.4,4.6)
> 0- < median 5.8 (8/137) 2.1 (0.7,5.8) 2.3 (0.8,6.9)
None 2.8 (6/212) Reference Reference
Six or More Criteria Any 8.5 (25/293) 1.4 (0.8,2.7) 1.5 (0.8,3.0)
> = median 6.7 (10/149) 1.1 (0.5,2.5) 1.2 (0.5,2.8)
> 0- < median 10.4 (15/144) 1.8 (0.9,3.6) 1.9 (0.9,4.0)
None 5.9 (13/219) Reference Reference
  1. *Adjusted for subject’s age, father’s occupation, mother’s educational level