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Table 4 Adjusted linear regression coefficients and 95% confidence intervals for the associations between tertiles of PFAS (ng/mL) and PBDE (ng/g lipid) concentrations > 80% detection in maternal serum and gestational age in weeks and birth weight z-scores (N = 506)

From: Associations between prenatal maternal exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and birth outcomes among pregnant women in San Francisco

   Gestational Age Birth Weight Z Score
N β 95% CI β 95% CI
PFAS
 PFOA
   < 1.40 167 Reference Reference
  1.40–0.96 172 −0.29 (−0.74, 0.17) 0.13 (−0.10, 0.35)
   > 0.96 167 −0.10 (−0.63, 0.43) 0.12 (−0.14, 0.37)
 PFOS
   < 1.40 167 Reference Reference
  1.40–2.56 172 −0.19 (−0.64, 0.26) − 0.01 (− 0.24, 0.22)
   > 2.56 167 −0.08 (− 0.59, 0.43) 0.02 (− 0.23, 0.27)
 PFHxS
   < 0.24 163 Reference Reference
  0.24–0.49 176 0.28 (−0.18, 0.73) 0.08 (−0.15, 0.32)
   > 0.49 167 0.09 (−0.47, 0.65) 0.15 (−0.12, 0.42)
 PFNA
   < 0.24 171 Reference Reference
  0.24–0.49 244 −0.28 (−0.71, 0.14) 0.01 (−0.20, 0.23)
   > 0.49 91 −0.30 (−0.88, 0.28) − 0.04 (− 0.32, 0.25)
 Me-PFOSA-AcOH
   < 0.04 165 Reference Reference
  0.04–0.06 171 0.12 (−0.32, 0.57) −0.24 (− 0.46, − 0.02)
   > 0.06 170 0.18 (−0.27, 0.63) 0.09 (−0.14, 0.32)
Total PFAS
   < 2.62 169 Reference Reference
  2.62–4.83 171 −0.34 (−0.80, 0.12) 0.01 (−0.22, 0.24)
   > 4.83 166 −0.21 (−0.72, 0.30) 0.06 (−0.19, 0.31)
PBDE
 BDE-47
   < 8.47 167 Reference Reference
  8.47–14.22 172 −0.07 (−0.50, 0.35) −0.26 (− 0.48, − 0.04)
   > 14.22 167 − 0.49 (− 0.95, − 0.02) −0.14 (− 0.37, 0.09)
 BDE-99
   < 2.88 169 Reference Reference
  2.88–4.71 170 0.07 (−0.35, 0.49) −0.25 (− 0.47, − 0.04)
   > 4.71 167 − 0.25 (− 0.71, 0.22) −0.08 (− 0.31, 0.15)
Total PBDE
   < 11.38 171 Reference Reference
  11.38–18.99 170 −0.13 (− 0.55, 0.29) −0.26 (− 0.48, − 0.04)
   > 18.99 165 − 0.41 (− 0.87, 0.05) −0.09 (− 0.32, 0.14)
  1. Abbreviations: PFAS per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, PBDE polybrominated diphenyl ethers, CI confidence interval
  2. Models adjusted for maternal age, maternal race/ethnicity, pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education, smoking status, parity, and food insecurity