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Table 5 Adjusted logistic regression coefficients and 95% confidence intervals for the associations between tertiles of PFAS (ng/mL) and PBDE (ng/g lipid) concentrations > 80% detection in maternal serum and preterm birth (N = 506)

From: Associations between prenatal maternal exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and birth outcomes among pregnant women in San Francisco

  N (PTB, FTB) OR 95% CI
PFAS
 PFOA
   < 1.40 (11, 155) Reference
  1.40–0.96 (14, 151) 1.79 (0.75, 4.28)
   > 0.96 (16, 146) 2.37 (0.88, 6.38)
 PFOS
   < 1.40 (13, 153) Reference
  1.40–2.56 (13, 155) 1.21 (0.50, 2.91)
   > 2.56 (15, 144) 1.87 (0.72, 4.88)
 PFHxS
   < 0.24 (13, 148) Reference
  0.24–0.49 (17, 157) 1.32 (0.58, 3.02)
   > 0.49 (11, 147) 1.15 (0.38, 3.41)
 PFNA
   < 0.24 (12, 159) Reference
  0.24–0.49 (24, 220) 1.88 (0.83, 4.30)
   > 0.49 (9, 82) 2.06 (0.72, 5.89)
 Me-PFOSA-AcOH
   < 0.04 (13, 152) Reference
  0.04–0.06 (15, 156) 0.96 (0.40, 2.28)
   > 0.06 (18, 152) 1.14 (0.49, 2.63)
Total PFAS
   < 2.62 (12, 157) Reference
  2.62–4.83 (17, 154) 1.70 (0.70, 4.17)
   > 4.83 (16, 150) 2.08 (0.74, 5.82)
PBDE
 BDE-47
   < 8.47 (9, 157) Reference
  8.47–14.22 (11, 158) 1.20 (0.47, 3.06)
   > 14.22 (21, 137) 2.35 (0.97, 5.72)
 BDE-99
   < 2.88 (13, 156) Reference
  2.88–4.71 (11, 159) 0.78 (0.33, 1.88)
   > 4.71 (21, 146) 1.25 (0.55, 2.84)
Total PBDE
   < 11.38 (10, 161) Reference
  11.38–18.99 (13, 157) 1.21 (0.50, 2.95)
   > 18.99 (22, 143) 1.88 (0.79, 4.48)
  1. Abbreviations: PFAS per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, PBDE polybrominated diphenyl ethers, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. Models adjusted for maternal age, maternal race/ethnicity, pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education, smoking status, parity, and food insecurity