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Table 2 Association between PFAS (ln ng/mL) and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (mmHg from GAM models (n = 15′380), adjusted by several covariates: β coefficients and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI)

From: Perfluoroalkyl substances are associated with elevated blood pressure and hypertension in highly exposed young adults

PFAS Systolic Blood Pressure Diastolic Blood Pressure
Total Males Females Total Males Females
β CI 95% β CI 95% β CI 95% β CI 95% β CI 95% β CI 95%
ln_PFOA 0.37 0.19–0.54 0.46 0.19–0.73 0.31 0.08–0.55 0.34 0.21–0.47 0.23 0.04–0.42 0.39 0.21–0.57
IQ 113.81   122.08   113.09   73.27   77.4   72.38  
II Q 0.26 −0.29 - 0.81 0.12 −0.87 - 1.1 0.46 −0.2 - 1.13 0.24 −0.16 - 0.64 −0.31 −1 - 0.38 0.44 −0.06 - 0.94
III Q 0.74 0.16–1.31 0.8 −0.15 - 1.75 0.8 0.06–1.53 0.78 0.36–1.2 0.4 − 0.27 - 1.07 0.74 0.19–1.3
IV Q 1.07 0.46–1.68 1.25 0.32–2.18 0.71 − 0.2 - 1.62 0.97 0.53–1.42 0.49 − 0.17 - 1.14 1.15 0.46–1.83
ln_PFOS 0.57 0.24–0.9 0.98 0.47–1.48 0.32 −0.13 - 0.77 0.44 0.2–0.68 0.29 − 0.07 - 0.64 0.51 0.17–0.84
IQ 114.15   122.21   114.34   73.51   77.51   72.67  
II Q −0.01 −0.56 - 0.53 0.46 −0.55 - 1.47 − 0.07 −0.72 - 0.58 0.32 −0.08 - 0.72 0.3 −0.41 - 1.01 0.24 −0.24 - 0.73
III Q 0.27 −0.29 - 0.84 0.79 −0.18 - 1.76 0.26 −0.47 - 0.98 0.3 −0.12 - 0.71 0.12 −0.57 - 0.8 0.26 −0.29 - 0.8
IV Q 0.6 0–1.21 1.13 0.16–2.09 0.42 −0.45 - 1.29 0.57 0.13–1.02 0.19 −0.49 - 0.87 1.00 0.34–1.66
ln_PFHxS 0.37 0.15–0.58 0.61 0.3–0.93 0.17 − 0.13 - 0.47 0.33 0.17–0.48 0.29 0.07–0.51 0.26 0.04–0.49
IQ 113.983   121.71   113.4   73.37   77.03   72.65  
II Q −0.01 −0.56 - 0.54 0.63 −0.43 - 1.69 − 0.14 −0.78 - 0.51 0.2 −0.2 - 0.6 0.49 −0.25 - 1.24 0.04 −0.44 - 0.52
III Q 0.61 0.04–1.18 1.16 0.14–2.17 0.57 −0.14 - 1.28 0.7 0.28–1.11 0.74 0.03–1.46 0.57 0.03–1.11
IV Q 0.93 0.3–1.57 1.54 0.55–2.53 0.43 −0.61 - 1.46 0.78 0.32–1.25 0.75 0.05–1.45 0.75 −0.03 - 1.53
ln_PFNA 0.99 0.47–1.51 1.46 0.72–2.19 0.54 −0.21 - 1.28 0.62 0.24–1 0.36 − 0.16 - 0.88 0.81 0.25–1.37