Skip to main content

Table 1 Neurodevelopmental outcomes of manganese exposure mainly prenatal exposure measured in biomarkers from cohort studies

From: Biomarkers of environmental manganese exposure and associations with childhood neurodevelopment: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, Year Age (Years) Country/ Study Name Number (Girls/Boys) Sources Biomarkers Neurological Assessments Associations between Manganese in Biomarkers and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes Adjustment for Covariates Study Quality
Chung 2015 [27] 0.5 Korea/MOCEH 232 (124/108) NA Maternal blood BSID-II An inverted U-shaped: mental and psychomotor development Maternal age, gestational age, parity, income, breastfeeding status, maternal total calorie intake, residential area, infant sex and birth weight High
Claus Henn 2010 [28] 1–2 Mexico 448# NA Blood BSID-II An inverted U-shaped: mental development at 1 year of age, 2 years of age: NS Blood lead, sex, maternal IQ and education, hemoglobin and gestational age High
Claus Henn 2017 [29] 2 USA 224 (91/133) Mining Maternal blood, cord blood BSID-II Maternal blood: ↓: mental and psychomotor development, cord blood: NS Maternal age, smoking, gestational period, marital status, parity, income, and prenatal vitamin use High
Freire 2018 [30] 4–5 Spain 302 (86/216) NA Placenta MSCA Placental Mn: ↓: perceptual-performance function, ↑: memory span and quantitative skills Child’s sex, psychologist, child age, social class, maternal smoking during pregnancy and pre-pregnancy BMI High
Gunier 2015 [31] 0.5, 1, 2 USA/CHAMACOS 197 (113/84) NA Teeth BSID-II Postnatal T-Mn: ↓: mental development at 6-months and at 12-months of age Child’s age, sex, maternal education, IQ, psychometrician, location of assessment, household poverty and HOME score. Postnatal models also adjusted for prenatal Mn High
Lin 2013 [32] 2 China/TBPS 230 (102/128) NA Cord blood CDIIT Cord blood: ↓: cognition and language Maternal age, education, fish intake, sex, passive smoking and HOME score High
Mora 2018 [33] 1 Costa Rica/ISA 355 (177/178) Mancozeb Maternal blood and hair BSID-III Maternal hair: ↓: cognition in girls, maternal blood: NS Maternal education, parity, gestational period, child age, HOME score and location of assessment High
Takser 2003 [34] 0.7, 3, 6 France 195, 126, 100 (44/56) NA * MSCA Cord blood: ↓: attention, non-verbal memory, hand skill at 3 years old, the other biomarkers: NS Child’s sex and mother’s education Medium
Yu 2014 [35] Newborns China 933 (439/494) NA Cord serum NBNA Cord serum Mn: ↓: fetal neurobehavioral development Maternal age, education, occupation, incomes, birth weight, passive smoking, gestational age, sex, Pb and Hg High
Yu 2016 [36] 1 China/LW birth cohort 377 (188/189) NA Cord serum GDI Cord serum Mn: ↓: gross motor and personal-social tasks Maternal education, income, birth weight, Hg and Fe High
Claus Henn 2018 [37] 6–16 Mexico/ELEMENT 138 (74/64) Air pollution and diets Teeth WRAVMA NS, stratified by sex, postnatal T-Mn: ↓: visual spatial scores in boys only Child’s sex, tooth Pb levels, maternal IQ, maternal education and study cohort High
Dion 2018 [20] 10.5–18 Canada 287 (151/136) Ground water Hair WASI Hair: NS, water Mn increased, Performance IQ scores decreased Maternal IQ, education and income High
Mora 2015 [38] 7, 9, 10.5 USA/CHAMACOS 248 (140/108) Mancoze, maneb Teeth BASC-2 WISC-IV Prenatal and postnatal T-Mn: ↓: behavior in boys and girls,↑: motor, memory and cognition in boys Maternal education, IQ, years in the US, and depression at time of assessment, child’s sex and age, language of maternal interview, HOME score, income and number of children in the home at time of assessment High
Wasserman 2016 [19] 12.4 ± 0.8 Bangladesh 296 Deep well water with reduced Mn Blood WISC-IV Baseline B-Mn: ↓: working memory, reductions in B-Mn did not translate into improvements in child IQ Maternal IQ and age, HOME score, child’s school grade, head circumference and plasma ferritin High
Zhou 2019 [39] 6–8 China/SMBCS 296 (126/170) NA Cord blood, urine WISC Urinary Mn: ↑: Performance IQ in girls Child sex, maternal age, education, income, inhabitation area and passive smoking High
  1. #: 1 year: n = 270 (131/139); 2 years: n = 430 (211/219); *:Maternal blood and hair, cord blood, newborns hair, placenta; ↓: Negative association; ↑: Positive association; NA Not available; NS No significant association. Fe Iron; Hg Mercury; Mn Manganese; Pb Lead. B-Mn Manganese in blood; T-Mn Manganese in teeth. BMI Body mass index; HOME score Home observation for measurement of the environment score; IQ Intelligence Quotient. CHAMACOS The Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas study; ELEMENT Early Life Exposures in MExico and NeuroToxicology; ISA Infantes y Salud Ambiental; MOCEH The Mothers and Children’s Environmental Health study; SMBCS Sheyang Mini Birth Cohort Study; TBPS The Taiwan Birth Panel Study