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Table 3 Multivariable-adjusted associations between air pollution levels averaged for the week preceding the examination and their top biomarker predictors identified in Partial Least Squares analysis (PLS)

From: Immune biomarkers link air pollution exposure to blood pressure in adolescents

Biomarker PM2.5 (95% CI) PAH456 (95% CI) O3 (95% CI) CO (95% CI) NO (95% CI) NO2 (95% CI)
%Monocytes, per doubling + 0.023 (0.002 to 0.044)* −0.15 (− 0.27 to − 0.04)* −1.26 (− 2.31 to − 0.21)* + 0.029 (0.014 to 0.045)‡ + 0.40 (0.11 to 0.69)† + 1.06 (0.54 to 1.58)‡
% Treg, per doubling + 0.085 (0.012 to 0.16)* + 0.26 (− 0.15 to 0.68) − 3.21 (− 7.64 to 1.21) + 0.095 (0.037 to 0.15)† + 1.25 (0.14 to 2.36)* + 2.61 (0.57 to 4.64)*
% Th1, per doubling + 0.043 (− 0.001 to 0.085) − 0.18 (− 0.41 to 0.06) + 1.33 (− 1.05 to 3.71) 0.036 (0.003 to 0.068)* + 0.26 (− 0.38 to 0.90) + 1.97 (0.87 to 3.08)‡
GDF-15, per doubling + 0.15 (0.07 to 0.22)‡ + 0.35 (− 0.07 to 0.78) + 4.43 (0.05 to 8.81)* + 0.049 (− 0.012 to 0.11) + 0.61 (− 0.55 to 1.76) + 1.79 (− 0.35 to 3.93)
MPO, per doubling + 0.033 (0.003 to 0.064)* + 0.084 (− 0.080 to 0.25) + 0.93 (− 0.79 to 2.65) + 0.032 (0.010 to 0.055)† + 0.70 (0.28 to 1.13)† 1.45 (0.66 to 2.24)‡
CRP, per doubling + 0.019 (− 0.001 to 0.040) + 0.084 (− 0.029 to 0.20) + 0.97 (− 0.22 to 2.15) − 0.006 (− 0.022 to 0.011) −0.12 (− 0.43 to 0.19) −0.20 (− 0.78 to 0.38)
VEGF-D, per + 66 MFI + 0.0034 (− 0.029 to 0.036) + 0.0030 (− 0.17 to 0.18) + 1.93 (0.17 to 3.69)* −0.013 (0.037 to 0.011) − 0.32 (− 0.79 to 0.14) −0.10 (− 0.98 to 0.78)
Rantes, per + 663 MFI + 0.030 (− 0.29 to 0.35) −0.053 (− 0.22 to 0.12) −1.01 (− 2.77 to 0.75) + 0.021 (− 0.027 to 0.045) + 0.44 (− 0.018 to 0.89) + 0.98 (0.13 to 1.82)*
ADAMTS, per + 30 MFI + 0.024 (− 0.010 to 0.058) + 0.28 (0.10 to 0.45)† + 0.98 (− 0.93 to 2.90) + 0.0082 (− 0.018 to 0.034) + 0.11 (− 0.38 to 0.61) + 0.16 (− 0.76 to 1.09)
IL-12P70, per + 33 MFI + 0.014 (− 0.020 to 0.048) + 0.032 (− 0.16 to 0.22) + 2.11 (0.16 to 4.07)* − 0.0066 (− 0.034 to 0.021) −0.086 (− 0.58 to 0.40) + 0.11 (− 0.81 to 1.03)
  1. Presented biomarkers were in the top 3 of influential markers in at least 1 of the 6 PLS models for air pollutant exposures (PM2.5, PAH456, O3, CO, NO and NO2). Values are effect sizes and their 95% CI representing the change in predicted air pollutant exposure associated with a 1-SD increase or doubling in biomarker level
  2. CO carbon monoxide, NO nitric oxide, O3 ozone, PAH polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, PM particulate matter
  3. Markers for P value significance: *P < 0.05, †P < 0.01 and ‡ P < 0.001