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Table 2 Distribution of inflammatory and hemostatic biomarkers by demographic factors for SWAN cohort, 1999–2004a

From: Association between coarse particulate matter and inflammatory and hemostatic markers in a cohort of midlife women

Variable   Nb hs-CRPd Fibrinogen Factor VIIc tPA-ag PAI-1
(Unit)    mg/l mg/dl % ng/ml ng/ml
N of samplesc 5982 4913 2638 2604 5634 5587
All participants 1694 1.6 (3.4) 367.8 (81.0) 130.9 (34.1) 7.1 (4.4) 14.6 (19.5)
Race/Ethnicity African American 32% 2.7 (4.4) 388.0 (86.4) 130.0 (34.2) 7.9 (4.7) 16.6 (20.2)
Asian 18% 0.8 (1.3) 354.9 (72.2) 129.0 (28.6) 6.2 (3.9) 11.2 (16.0)
  Hispanic 6% 2.6 (4.0) 370.0 (79.8) 129.1 (34.2) 8.7 (4.3) 20.1 (22.0)
  White 44% 1.6 (3.1) 362.8 (76.8) 134.6 (34.9) 6.9 (4.1) 14.0 (19.7)
  p-valuef   < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01
Education ≤ High school 23% 1.7 (3.6) 373.6 (93.1) 134.1 (34.0) 7.4 (4.7) 15.8 (20.3)
  Some college 30% 2.1 (3.7) 373.4 (74.3) 132.7 (33.2) 7.4 (4.4) 16.0 (21.4)
  ≥ College 45% 1.4 (3.0) 362.8 (81.6) 130.0 (33.2) 6.7 (4.3) 12.9 (17.8)
  p-value   0.03 0.44 0.04 0.11 0.13
Menopausal status Pre 345 1.6 (2.9) 352.2 (73.2) 129.1 (33.2) 7.1 (4.0) 15.2 (21.2)
Early peri 2297 1.5 (3.0) 362.4 (81.0) 127.2 (29.7) 7.0 (4.0) 14.5 (18.8)
  Late peri 624 1.6 (3.5) 376.5 (85.0) 134.1 (32.7) 7.7 (4.7) 17.0 (23.2)
  Post 2017 1.8 (3.7) 380.9 (82.5) 136.4 (34.8) 7.4 (4.9) 14.8 (19.4)
  Unknown 687 2.0 (4.0) 362.6 (75.8) 136.0 (37.6) 6.6 (4.1) 12.2 (17.0)
  p-value   < 0.01 0.28 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) < 25, 1947 0.8 (1.3) 344.8 (64.1) 123.5 (28.9) 5.4 (3.2) 8.4 (10.2)
25–30 1672 1.7 (2.6) 365.7 (72.9) 133.7 (34.9) 7.1 (3.6) 14.8 (17.5)
>  30 2178 3.9 (4.4) 395.3 (82.8) 137.3 (35.7) 8.8 (4.1) 22.6 (23.5)
  p-value   < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01
Current smoker Yes 805 2.4 (4.1) 390.9 (87.9) 128.1 (32.4) 7.9 (4.4) 18.7 (23.6)
No 4959 1.6 (3.1) 364.6 (78.5) 128.1 (32.4) 7.0 (4.3) 13.8 (18.5)
  p-value   0.02 < 0.01 0.14 < 0.01 0.04
Alcohol consumptione Low 3084 1.7 (3.7) 375.8 (83.2) 132.7 (33.1) 7.3 (4.6) 15.4 (21.3)
Moderate 1463 1.7 (3.4) 367.2 (79.3) 130.0 (32.3) 7.0 (4.2) 14.2 (18.1)
  High 1133 1.4 (2.5) 348.9 (75.0) 130.4 (36.0) 6.7 (4.3) 12.2 (17.2)
  p-value   0.31 < 0.01 0.18 0.38 0.11
Diagnosed diabetes Yes 530 4.4 (4.8) 401.1 (88.9) 141.9 (36.3) 9.1 (4.4) 24.4 (27.8)
No 5449 1.5 (3.1) 365.4 (80.3) 130.9 (32.3) 7.0 (4.3) 13.8 (18.2)
  p-value   < 0.01 0.30 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01
Any CVD event Yes 84 3.4 (4.3) 418.9 (99.1) 145.5 (29.9) 7.1 (4.4) 19.6 (23.7)
No 5898 1.6 (3.4) 367.1 (80.8) 130.9 (34.1) 8.5 (5.0) 14.5 (19.5)
  p-value   0.03 0.08 0.52 0.41 0.25
  1. aData shown in each grid is the median followed by (interquartile range), excluding N
  2. bFor ethnicity/education, the % show in this column are the percentage of participants in each category among all participants. Percentages do not always add up to 100% because of missing data. For the visit-specific variables, N is the number of observations, not women; each participant could have data from multiple visits and could be in different categories at different visits
  3. cSample size varied by biomarkers. Visits without any blood data or any matched exposure data were excluded. Visits 6 and 7 in New Jersey site were censored due to small sample size. Visits that happened after any CVD events were excluded. Marker values out of reasonable ranges were excluded
  4. dFor hs-CRP, values > 10 mg/l were not included due to the concern of possible severe inflammation
  5. eAlcohol category consists of three categories developed by Laura L Schott (EDC Coordinating Center): low = none or < 1 serving/month, moderate = up to 1/week or 0.3/day, high = 2+/week or > 0.3/day
  6. fp-value are from the Type 3 test of fixed effects using mixed effect model, with all variables included as fixed effects and a random intercept account for covariance of measurements. Site was also included as a fixed effect and participants were nested within each site, as multiple longitudinal measurements collected from the same woman are highly correlated. First-order ante-dependence structure was specified for repeated measurements from each participant