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Table 4 Adjusted associations between PM10–2.5 and cardiovascular disease markers for SWAN cohort, 1999–2004a

From: Association between coarse particulate matter and inflammatory and hemostatic markers in a cohort of midlife women

Marker hs-CRP Fibrinogen Factor VIIc tPA-ag PAI-1
Total 4.1 (−0.1, 8.6)* −0.1 (−1.0, 0.8) −0.1 (−1.2, 1.1) 0.4 (− 1.4, 2.3) 5.5 (1.8, 9.4)***
BMI < 25 5.4 (−3.1, 14.5) Did not converge 0.6 (− 1.5, 2.7) 2.9 (− 1, 7.0) 9.2 (1.4, 17.7)**
BMI ≥ 25 4.5 (− 0.3, 9.5)* − 0.02 (− 1.1, 1.1) − 0.8 (−2.2, 0.7) −1.3 (− 3.3, 0.8) 3.3 (− 0.9, 7.6)
Peri-menopausal 1.8 (−4.4, 8.4) − 0.1 (− 1.4, 1.3) − 1.4 (− 2.9, 0.2)* 0.05 (− 2.4, 2.5) 7.5 (2.2, 13.2)***
Post-menopausal 3.6 (−2.8, 10.5) −0.02 (− 1.1, 1.1) 0.1 (− 1.9, 2.2) 0.3 (− 2.8, 3.6) 1.4 (−4.5, 7.7)
≤ High school 5.8 (−2.7, 15) 1.2 (− 0.7, 3.2) −2.4 (− 4.7, − 0.1)** 0.9 (− 2.6, 4.5) 7.6 (0.6, 15.1)**
Some college or more 3.8 (−1.1, 8.9) − 0.9 (− 1.9, 0.2) 0.05 (− 1.3, 1.4) 0.3 (−1.8, 2.5) 1.1 (− 3.2, 5.6)
Low alcohol consumption 8.8 (2.7, 15.3)*** 0.6 (− 0.7, 1.8) −1.4 (− 3.0, 0.2)* 1.3 (− 1.2, 3.9) 7.5 (2.3, 13.0)***
Medium/high alcohol
consumption
−0.2 (− 6.1, 6.0) −1.2 (− 2.5, 0.2)* 0.5 (− 1.2, 2.2) − 0.9 (− 3.6, 1.8) 3.9 (−1.4, 9.5)
  1. aResults shown are as percent change in biomarker level per an interquartile increase in exposure, which is 4 μg/m3 for PM10–2.5. Analyses were based on log-transformed biomarker levels, *adjusted for study site, age (continuous), race/ethnicity, education, menopausal status, BMI, active smoking status, alcohol category. Stratifying variables were omitted from respective models.* p < 0.10; ** p < 0.05; *** p < 0.01