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Table 1 Characteristics of study patients and their associations with developing composite cardiovascular disease events based on the results of univariate analyses of Bayesian spatial survival analysis

From: Association of ambient air pollution with cardiovascular disease risks in people with type 2 diabetes: a Bayesian spatial survival analysis

Characteristics Mean (SD) or proportion HR (95% credible interval)
Age at index date (years) 69.573 (10.939) 1.036 (1.028, 1.045)
Male (%) 52.075% 1.220 (1.022, 1.474)
Duration of diabetes at index date (years) 9.647 (1.112) 0.935 (0.867, 1.040)
aDCSI (score) 2.296 (1.856) 1.211 (1.170, 1.255)
Second-line glucose-lowering agent at index date (%)
 Sulfonylurea 65.347% (ref.)
 Acarbose 10.907% 0.921 (0.682, 1.192)
 Dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 inhibitor 10.714% 0.670 (0.514, 0.942)
 Meglitinide 8.639% 1.733 (1.436, 2.170)
 Thiazolidinedione 4.393% 1.116 (0.713, 1.703)
Comorbidities and diabetes-related complications within 1 year before index date (%)
 Hypertension 77.703% 1.279 (1.031, 1.595)
 Dyslipidemia 42.568% 0.786 (0.647, 0.908)
 Retinopathy 32.288% 1.142 (0.971, 1.321)
 Nephropathy 13.851% 1.392 (1.056, 1.703)
 Neuropathy 17.905% 0.899 (0.710, 1.079)
 Peripheral vascular disease 9.846% 1.301 (0.968, 1.658)
CVD-related medications within 1 year before index date (%)
 Lipid-modifying agent 43.243% 0.939 (0.781, 1.112)
 α-blocker 8.929% 1.090 (0.806, 1.445)
 β-blocker 48.069% 1.172 (1.005, 1.343)
 Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone agent 52.027% 1.194 (0.973, 1.408)
 Diuretics 28.427% 1.941 (1.638, 2.282)
 Calcium channel blocker 58.832% 1.074 (0.912, 1.259)
 Antiarrhythmic 6.129% 1.459 (1.131, 1.822)
 Cardiac glycoside 4.778% 2.962 (2.277, 3.859)
 Vasodilator 29.054% 2.352 (2.000, 2.742)
 Antiplatelet agent 69.932% 1.166 (0.984, 1.397)
 Anticoagulant 2.799% 2.104 (1.468, 3.298)
Monthly concentrations of air pollutants during the follow-up
 CO (ppm) 0.501 (0.170) 3.791 (1.945, 8.088)
 NO (ppb) 5.446 (4.026) 1.088 (1.032, 1.129)
 NO2 (ppb) 17.320 (5.628) 1.120 (1.079, 1.166)
 NOx (ppb) 22.603 (8.993) 1.066 (1.046, 1.093)
 O3 (ppb) 27.767 (4.648) 1.024 (0.984, 1.073)
 PM10 (μg/m3) 54.506 (17.207) 1.052 (1.028, 1.070)
 PM2.5 (μg/m3) 31.294 (9.425) 1.105 (1.080, 1.135)
 SO2 (ppb) 3.876 (1.527) 2.095 (1.738, 2.352)
  1. Abbreviations: SD Standard deviation, aDCSI adapted Diabetes Complication Severity Index, CVD Cardiovascular disease
  2. Index date refers to the date of the beginning of second-line glucose-lowering agent therapy