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Table 3 Adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of incident cardiovascular diseases for a 10 μg/m3 increase in long-term PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations for the previous 5 years by five health analysis models in 196,167 subjects of the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort 2.0 in South Korea for 2007–2015

From: Incident cardiovascular disease and particulate matter air pollution in South Korea using a population-based and nationwide cohort of 0.2 million adults

Pollutants Cardiovascular event Hazard ratio (95% confidence interval)
Model 1a Model 2b Model 3c Model 4d Model5e
PM10 Total 0.97 (0.95,0.99) 0.97 (0.96,0.99) 0.96 (0.94,0.98) 1.00 (0.98,1.03) 1.00 (0.98,1.02)
Ischemic heart disease 1.01 (0.98,1.03) 1.00 (0.97,1.03) 1.00 (0.97,1.02) 1.01 (0.98,1.03) 1.00 (0.97,1.03)
Myocardial Infarction 0.95 (0.86,1.05) 0.95 (0.86,1.05) 0.94 (0.85,1.04) 0.97 (0.87,1.09) 0.96 (0.86,1.08)
Stroke 0.94 (0.90,0.97) 0.94 (0.91,0.98) 0.94 (0.91,0.98) 1.01 (0.98,1.04) 1.01 (0.97,1.05)
Heart Failure 0.84 (0.78,0.90) 0.84 (0.79,0.90) 0.84 (0.78,0.90) 0.96 (0.89,1.04) 0.96 (0.89,1.04)
PM2.5 Total 1.00 (0.96,1.04) 1.00 (0.97,1.04) 1.00 (0.97,1.04) 1.04 (1.00,1.09) 1.04 (1.00,1.09)
Ischemic heart disease 1.10 (1.05,1.16) 1.10 (1.05,1.15) 1.10 (1.05,1.15) 1.10 (1.05,1.15) 1.10 (1.04,1.16)
Myocardial Infarction 1.06 (0.88,1.28) 1.06 (0.88,1.28) 1.05 (0.87,1.27) 1.11 (0.90,1.37) 1.11 (0.90,1.37)
Stroke 0.92 (0.86,0.99) 0.94 (0.87,1.00) 0.93 (0.87,1.00) 1.01 (0.94,1.09) 1.01 (0.94,1.09)
Heart Failure 0.69 (0.61,0.79) 0.71 (0.62,0.80) 0.71 (0.62,0.81) 0.84 (0.73,0.96) 0.84 (0.73,0.96)
  1. Abbreviations: PM10 particulate matter 10 μm or less in diameter. PM2.5 particulate matter 2.5 μm or less in diameter. Total included four subtypes of cardiovascular diseases: ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure
  2. a Model 1: PM10 or PM2.5, sex, and age
  3. b Model 2: Model 1 + income, smoking, alcohol use, obese, and physical activity
  4. c Model 3: Model 2 + comorbidity of hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia
  5. d Model 4: Model 2 + area-level gross regional domestic products, percent of high school graduated or more, and percent of the elderly
  6. e Model 5: Model 3 + area-level gross regional domestic products, percent of high school graduated or more, and percent of the elderly