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Table 1 Distribution of urinary metal concentrations (μg/L) among ELEMENT mothers and their male children at age 8–14 yearsa

From: In utero and peripubertal metals exposure in relation to reproductive hormones and sexual maturation and progression among boys in Mexico City

  In utero Peripubertal  
  LOD %<
LOD
GM GSD 25% 50% 75% MAX %<LOD GM GSD 25% 50% 75% MAX P value b
Essential metals
 Co 0.4 0.0 1.2 1.9 0.8 1.2 2.1 5.2 0.0 0.7 1.5 0.6 0.8 0.9 1.6 0.63
 Cu 48.2 46.3 86.1 4.4 34.1 50.2 71.9 2742 56.8 43.3 1.3 34.1 34.1 56.1 106 0.83
 Mn 0.4 7.4 0.8 1.7 0.6 0.7 1.0 8.7 2.5 1.2 1.8 0.8 1.2 1.7 4.4 0.68
 Mo 2.9 15.8 19.5 3.3 12.7 25.7 42.9 308 0.0 46.6 1.8 33.7 50.2 67.1 210 0.99
 Se 10.5 3.2 29.9 1.7 23.0 32.6 43.1 120 1.7 47.2 1.7 36.3 53.0 65.6 141 0.26
 Zn 0.1 1.2 271 2.2 160 298 451 1253 0.0 366 1.8 257 411 521 1200 0.08
Non-essential Metals
 Al 8.6 11.6 24.0 2.5 12.3 20.3 42.2 304 24.6 14.5 2.1 8.8 14.0 23.3 428 0.37
 As 0.3 0.0 14.0 2.0 9.3 13.2 20.6 153 0.0 14.3 2.0 10.2 14.4 20.5 515 0.07
 Ba 1.1 3.2 4.0 2.0 2.6 4.2 5.9 27.6 10.2 2.5 2.0 1.6 2.4 3.9 20.2 0.81
 Ni 3.0 0.0 8.7 1.9 5.8 7.4 11.0 107 0.8 8.1 1.6 5.9 8.0 10.8 53.2 0.83
 Cd 54.0 2.1 0.2 2.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 2.7 2.5 0.1 1.6 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.24
  1. a uncorrected for specific gravity
  2. b P value from Spearman correlation test between in utero and peripubertal metal concentration measurements
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