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Table 1 Description of the new studies identified and included in this review

From: Update on human exposure to glyphosate, with a complete review of exposure in children

Citation number, Author, year Country Year of sampling Subjects Number of subjects Lab methods Type of sample Creatinine Adjusted levels LOD glyphosate LOD AMPA Samples below LOD included in average Glyphosate Results AMPA Results
OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE             
Perry, 2019 [13] US (Wisconsin) 1997–1998 Farmers who self-reported glyphosate exposure 8 h prior to sample collection and farmers who did not report glyphosate use 18 farmers with glyphosate use, 17 farmers without glyphosate use LC-MS/MS Urine No 0.4 μg/L 1 μg/L No Farmers using G: 39% had detectable levels, mean (range):4.04 μg/L (1.3–12.0 μg/L). Farmers not using G: None had detectable levels Only one G using farmer with the highest G level had detectable AMPA at 4.1 μg/L
Balderrama-Carmona 2019a [14] Mexico (Valle del Mayo) NR Farmers who lived in small communities in Mexico and reported regular application of pesticides 30 urine samples from agricultural workers HPLC Urine Not specified 5 μg/L 15 μg/L NA Of the 30 samples tested, none of them had detectable levels of glyphosate Of the 30 samples tested, 6% had detectable levels of AMPA of 0.42 and 2.23 μg/L
Wongta, 2018 [15] Thailand 2017 Rice, Longan, and Vegetable farmers living in San Pa Tong District 38 Rice Farmers,
31 Longan Farmers, 17 Vegetable Farmers
FMOC-Cl prior to HPLC Urine Not specified for G 0.5 μg/L NR Not specified Rice: G was detected in 10.5% of samples Mean ± SD: 2.01 ± 0.81 μg/L GM: 1.89 μg/L;
Longan: G detected in 30% of samples, Mean ± SD 2.88 ± 1.46 μg/L, GM: 2.55 μg/L;
G was detected in 23.5% samples, Mean ± SD: 3.11 ± 1.15 μg/L, GM: 2.92 μg/L
NR
TOTAL (n = 3)     151         
GENERAL POPULATION             
Wongta, 2018 [15] Thailand 2017 Nonfarm workers between 18 and 65 living in San Pa Tong District in Thailand 38 FMOC-Cl prior to HPLC Urine Not specified for G 0.5 μg/L NR Not specified G was not detected in the urine of any non-farm workers NR
TOTAL (n = 1)     38         
CHILDREN             
Trasande 2020 [11] US (Seattle, WA, New York, NY)   Bright Start: Neonates younger than 30 days
Early Start: infants 10–19 months
PEEPS: children ages 3–8 years
Bright Start: 10
Early Start: 66
PEEPS: 32
Total of 108
HPLC-MS/MS Urine No 0.11 NR Yes, values below the LOD imputed as LOD/sqrt(2) The majority of the samples were below the LOD and the mean (SD) glyphosate concentration was 0.28 (0.23) NR
Sierra-Diaz, 2019 [12] Mexico NR Children under the age of 17 living in Agua Caliente
Children under the age of 12 living in Ahuacapán
192 Agua Caliente; 89 Ahuacapán HPLC/MS/MS Urine Not specified Curve range: 0.01–1000 μg/L NR Not specified Agua Caliente: G was detected in 72.91% of samples with a mean ± SD of 0.363 ± 0.321 μg/L
Ahuacapán: G was detected in 100% of the samples with a mean ± SD: 0.606 ± 0.5435 μg/L
NR
TOTAL (n = 2)     389         
  1. aValues reported in this study do not match the reported LOD. Authors were contacted to clarify but did not respond