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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population (189 mother-newborn pairs)

From: DNA methylation of insulin-like growth factor 2 and H19 cluster in cord blood and prenatal air pollution exposure to fine particulate matter

Characteristic N (%) Mean ± SD
Newborns
Sex
 Male 98 (51.9)  
 Female 91 (48.1)  
Ethnicity
 European 170 (89.9)  
 Non-European 19 (10.1)  
Season of birth
 Winter 42 (22.2)  
 Spring 82 (43.4)  
 Summer 26 (13.8)  
 Autumn 39 (20.6)  
Birth weight (kg)   3.40 ± 0.48
Ponderal index (g/cm3)   2.69 ± 0.22
Gestational age (weeks)   39.1 ± 1.6
 < 37 14 (7.4)  
 37 6 (3.2)  
 38 26 (13.8)  
 39 46 (24.3)  
 40 72 (38.1)  
 41 25 (13.2)  
Date of birth (days)   207 ± 102
Mothers
Educational level
 Low 27 (14.3)  
 Middle 65 (34.4)  
 High 97 (51.3)  
Smoking status
 Never smoker 122 (64.6)  
 Former smoker 41 (21.7)  
 Smoker 26 (13.8)  
Parity
 Primiparous 104 (55.0)  
 Secundiparous 59 (31.2)  
 Multiparous 26 (13.8)  
With pregnancy complications 40 (21.2)  
Age (years)   29.3 ± 4.3
Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2)   24.2 ± 4.2