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Table 4 Percent Change of DNA Methylation in NOS3 Gene per log-transformed IQR increase in BC at different lag periods

From: Exposure to traffic-related air pollution and changes in exhaled nitric oxide and DNA methylation in arginase and nitric oxide synthase in children with asthma

Lag period NOS3 Gene loci Model 1   Model 2   Model 3   Model 4  
Difference in % methylation 95%CI p Difference in % methylation 95%CI p Difference in % methylation 95%CI p Difference in % methylation 95%CI p
Lag 0-6 h Position 1 −3.73 (−6.98, − 0.47) 0.03 −3.31 (−6.75, 0.13) 0.06 −4.90 (−9.71, − 0.08) 0.05 −1.75 (−4.66, 1.16) 0.23
Position 2 −1.23 (−4.48, 2.02) 0.45 −0.36 (−3.79, 3.08) 0.84 1.75 (−3.90, 7.39) 0.54 0.37 (−3.01, 3.75) 0.83
Position 3 −1.70 (−5.44, 2.04) 0.37 −1.26 (−5.24, 2.72) 0.53 1.02 (−4.26, 6.29) 0.70 1.59 (−1.94, 5.13) 0.37
Average −2.17 (−4.94, 0.61) 0.12 −1.58 (−4.52, 1.36) 0.29 −0.70 (−4.92, 3.52) 0.74 −0.11 (−2.79, 2.56) 0.93
Lag 7-12 h Position 1 −6.38 (−9.61, − 3.15) < 0.01 −6.51 (−9.93, − 3.08) < 0.01 −7.13 (−11.76, − 2.50) < 0.01 −4.81 (−7.64, − 1.99) < 0.01
Position 2 −4.38 (−7.70, − 1.06) 0.01 −3.92 (−7.54, − 0.29) 0.03 −3.49 (−9.07, 2.10) 0.21 −2.39 (−5.98, 1.19) 0.19
Position 3 −4.65 (−8.49, − 0.80) 0.02 −4.40 (−8.54, − 0.26) 0.04 −2.88 (−8.09, 2.34) 0.27 −2.25 (−5.94, 1.44) 0.23
Average −5.31 (−8.03, − 2.59) < 0.01 −5.51 (−8.40, − 2.61) < 0.01 −4.57 (−8.61, − 0.53) 0.03 −3.13 (−5.84, − 0.43) 0.02
Lag 13-24 h Position 1 −6.96 (−9.78, − 4.14) < 0.01 −6.56 (− 9.45, − 3.68) < 0.01 −8.12 (−11.68, − 4.56) < 0.01 −4.99 (−7.8, − 2.17) < 0.01
Position 2 −4.47 (−7.51, − 1.43) < 0.01 −4.09 (−7.20, − 0.98) 0.01 −4.05 (−8.49, 0.39) 0.07 −3.05 (−6.58, 0.47) 0.09
Position 3 −1.90 (−5.41, 1.60) 0.28 −1.14 (−4.74, 2.46) 0.53 0.43 (−3.75, 4.62) 0.84 0.60 (−3.02, 4.21) 0.74
Average −4.58 (−7.02, − 2.14) < 0.01 −4.37 (− 6.92, − 1.82) < 0.01 −3.31 (−6.57, − 0.04) 0.05 −2.65 (−5.35, 0.05) 0.05
Lag 0-24 h Position 1 −5.73 (−8.25, − 3.21) < 0.01 −5.44 (−8.07, − 2.82) < 0.01 −6.79 (−10.27, − 3.31) < 0.01 −5.16 (−8.43, − 1.89) < 0.01
Position 2 −3.13 (−5.73, − 0.53) 0.02 −2.71 (−5.45, 0.03) 0.05 −2.17 (−6.42, 2.08) 0.31 −2.37 (−6.45, 1.70) 0.25
Position 3 −2.44 (−5.46, 0.58) 0.11 −1.96 (−5.16, 1.23) 0.22 −0.08 (−4.06, 3.90) 0.97 0.15 (−4.1, 4.40) 0.94
Average −3.67 (−5.79, − 1.54) < 0.01 −3.72 (−5.97, − 1.46) < 0.01 −2.71 (−5.82, 0.40) 0.09 −2.69 (−5.82, 0.44) 0.09
Lag 25-48 h Position 1 −1.94 (−5.35, 1.48) 0.26 −2.25 (−5.73, 1.23) 0.20 −2.48 (−6.66, 1.70) 0.24 −3.48 (−6.38, − 0.57) 0.02
Position 2 −0.40 (−4.06, 3.26) 0.83 −0.44 (−4.16, 3.27) 0.81 0.29 (−4.50, 5.09) 0.90 −0.87 (−4.45, 2.71) 0.63
Position 3 1.81 (−2.13, 5.76) 0.36 1.36 (−2.68, 5.40) 0.50 1.66 (−2.81, 6.12) 0.46 1.19 (−2.49, 4.87) 0.52
Average −0.50 (−3.52, 2.51) 0.74 − 0.52 (−3.57, 2.53) 0.73 −0.10 (−3.69, 3.48) 0.95 −1.37 (− 4.13, 1.40) 0.32
Lag 49-72 h Position 1 0.02 (−3.71, 3.74) 0.99 −0.41 (−4.47, 3.64) 0.84 0.21 (−5.3, 5.72) 0.94 2.81 (−1.03, 6.66) 0.15
Position 2 0.17 (−3.81, 4.14) 0.93 0.54 (−3.79, 4.86) 0.80 4.15 (−2.13, 10.43) 0.19 2.24 (−2.41, 6.89) 0.34
Position 3 −1.87 (−6.16, 2.42) 0.39 −2.44 (−7.07, 2.20) 0.30 −0.46 (−6.35, 5.43) 0.87 0.47 (−4.01, 4.96) 0.83
Average −0.81 (−4.11, 2.49) 0.62 −0.76 (−4.3, 2.79) 0.67 1.32 (−3.4, 6.04) 0.58 1.95 (−1.56, 5.46) 0.27
Lag 73-96 h Position 1 −0.63 (−4.35, 3.10) 0.74 −0.76 (−4.61, 3.10) 0.69 −0.39 (−4.98, 4.21) 0.87 −0.59 (−4.33, 3.15) 0.75
Position 2 −2.04 (−5.71, 1.64) 0.27 −1.99 (−5.82, 1.84) 0.30 −1.50 (−6.62, 3.63) 0.56 −2.32 (−6.67, 2.04) 0.29
Position 3 −3.62 (−7.72, 0.48) 0.08 −4.00 (− 8.25, 0.24) 0.06 −3.60 (−8.38, 1.18) 0.14 −1.14 (−5.53, 3.25) 0.60
Average −2.36 (−5.44, 0.71) 0.13 −2.45 (− 5.67, 0.77) 0.13 −1.90 (−5.78, 1.98) 0.33 −1.72 (−5.13, 1.68) 0.31
  1. Note: All estimates are from linear mixed effect model to reflect percent changes in methylation per IQR increase in log-transformed BC. The IQR (μg/m3) was 1.8 for lag 0-6 h, 1.8 for lag 7-12 h, 1.2 for lag 13-24 h, 1.1 for lag 0-24 h, 1.5 for lag 25-48 h, 1.6 for lag 49-72 h and 1.3 for lag 73-96 h
  2. Model 1 was the unadjusted model
  3. Model 2 adjusted for day-of-week and week number when buccal cells were collected
  4. Model 3 further adjusted for age, gender and race/ethnicity
  5. Model 4 further adjusted for NO2