Skip to main content

Table 2 The significant adjusted associations between long-term (annual) exposure to PM2.5 with metabolomics (multi-pollutant models) at ENT95% significance level

From: Metabolomic signatures of the long-term exposure to air pollution and temperature

BIOCHEMICAL Super-Pathway Sub-Pathway Beta (SE) for individual metabolites P-value for individual metabolites ICA_factor2 Weight ICA_factor2 Rank
Aspartate Amino Acid Alanine and Aspartate Metabolism − 0.203 (0.046) 1.93E-05 0.392 57
Cys-Gly, Oxidized Amino Acid Glutathione Metabolism −0.357 (0.060) 1.10E-08 0.527 19
Cysteinylglycine Disulfide* Amino Acid Glutathione Metabolism −0.316 (0.051) 4.00E-09 0.434 43
Cysteinylglycine Amino Acid Glutathione Metabolism −0.361 (0.059) 7.00E-09 0.266 115
Sarcosine Amino Acid Glycine, Serine and Threonine Metabolism 0.293 (0.051) 4.60E-08 0.094 291
Alpha-Hydroxyisocaproate Amino Acid Leucine, Isoleucine and Valine Metabolism −0.266 (0.051) 5.69E-07 0.483 27
Taurine Amino Acid Methionine, Cysteine, SAM and Taurine Metabolism −0.190 (0.040) 3.79E-06 0.423 45
Cysteine S-Sulfate Amino Acid Methionine, Cysteine, SAM and Taurine Metabolism −0.580 (0.075) 6.76E-13 0.412 50
5-Methylthioadenosine (MTA) Amino Acid Polyamine Metabolism 0.222 (0.052) 2.77E-05 −0.277 108
Maltose Carbohydrate Glycogen Metabolism −0.321 (0.065) 1.90E-06 0.536 17
3-Phosphoglycerate Carbohydrate Glycolysis, Gluconeogenesis, and Pyruvate Metabolism −0.499 (0.067) 3.33E-12 0.856 2
Lactate Carbohydrate Glycolysis, Gluconeogenesis, and Pyruvate Metabolism −0.233 (0.044) 3.54E-07 0.448 39
Ribitol Carbohydrate Pentose Metabolism −0.278 (0.065) 2.68E-05 0.204 152
Heme Cofactors and Vitamins Hemoglobin and Porphyrin Metabolism −0.348 (0.073) 3.34E-06 0.599 10
Bilirubin (E,Z Or Z,E)* Cofactors and Vitamins Hemoglobin and Porphyrin Metabolism 0.354 (0.066) 2.93E-07 −0.327 79
Bilirubin (E,E)* Cofactors and Vitamins Hemoglobin and Porphyrin Metabolism 0.343 (0.062) 1.30E-07 −0.260 118
Bilirubin (Z,Z) Cofactors and Vitamins Hemoglobin and Porphyrin Metabolism 0.381 (0.059) 1.00E-09 −0.117 243
Nicotinamide Cofactors and Vitamins Nicotinate and Nicotinamide Metabolism −0.237 (0.049) 3.27E-06 0.515 22
Alpha-Tocopherol Cofactors and Vitamins Tocopherol Metabolism 0.279 (0.055) 8.57E-07 −0.121 233
Malate Energy TCA Cycle −0.164 (0.038) 2.93E-05 0.311 90
Succinate Energy TCA Cycle −0.161 (0.037) 2.72E-05 0.249 127
1-Stearoyl-GPS (18:0)* Lipid Lysophospholipid −0.31 (0.069) 1.30E-05 0.640 7
1-Arachidonoyl-GPA (20:4) Lipid Lysophospholipid −0.282 (0.065) 2.40E-05 0.462 34
1,2-Dipalmitoyl-GPE (16:0/16:0)* Lipid Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) −0.299 (0.068) 1.79E-05 0.406 52
1-Stearoyl-2-Oleoyl-GPS (18:0/18:1) Lipid Phosphatidylserine (PS) −0.264 (0.061) 2.55E-05 0.640 8
Phosphoethanolamine Lipid Phospholipid Metabolism −0.228 (0.049) 4.92E-06 0.552 14
Sphinganine Lipid Sphingolipid Synthesis −0.249 (0.049) 9.96E-07 0.530 18
Sphingomyelin (D18:2/18:1)* Lipid Sphingomyelins 0.137 (0.032) 2.88E-05 −0.066 423
Sphingosine Lipid Sphingosines −0.249 (0.049) 1.17E-06 0.562 13
Inosine 5′-Monophosphate (IMP) Nucleotide Purine Metabolism, (Hypo)Xanthine/Inosine containing −0.423 (0.076) 1.02E-07 0.799 3
Hypoxanthine Nucleotide Purine Metabolism, (Hypo)Xanthine/Inosine containing −0.327 (0.073) 1.33E-05 0.755 5
Allantoin Nucleotide Purine Metabolism, (Hypo)Xanthine/Inosine containing −0.229 (0.043) 3.45E-07 0.012 1007
Adenosine 5′-Monophosphate (AMP) Nucleotide Purine Metabolism, Adenine containing −0.433 (0.066) 4.16E-10 0.797 4
Dihydroorotate Nucleotide Pyrimidine Metabolism, Orotate containing 0.356 (0.066) 2.41E-07 −0.279 106
Uracil Nucleotide Pyrimidine Metabolism, Uracil containing −0.284 (0.064) 1.40E-05 0.399 56
Beta-Alanine Nucleotide Pyrimidine Metabolism, Uracil containing −0.149 (0.035) 2.87E-05 0.214 147
Gamma-Glutamylmethionine Peptide Gamma-glutamyl Amino Acid 0.324 (0.049) 2.84E-10 −0.384 60
Gamma-Glutamylalanine Peptide Gamma-glutamyl Amino Acid 0.347 (0.07) 1.41E-06 −0.360 65
Gamma-Glutamylglycine Peptide Gamma-glutamyl Amino Acid 0.35 (0.047) 2.76E-12 −0.290 100
Gamma-Glutamylglutamine Peptide Gamma-glutamyl Amino Acid 0.22 (0.042) 4.59E-07 −0.250 125
Gamma-Glutamylvaline Peptide Gamma-glutamyl Amino Acid 0.216 (0.047) 7.33E-06 −0.229 138
Gamma-Glutamylisoleucine* Peptide Gamma-glutamyl Amino Acid 0.197 (0.046) 2.64E-05 −0.205 151
Gamma-Glutamyl-Alpha-Lysine Peptide Gamma-glutamyl Amino Acid 0.207 (0.04) 7.56E-07 −0.192 162
Gamma-Glutamylthreonine Peptide Gamma-glutamyl Amino Acid 0.152 (0.036) 3.03E-05 −0.077 351
Iminodiacetate (IDA) Xenobiotics Chemical 0.352 (0.049) 2.51E-11 −0.125 227
Hepes Xenobiotics Chemical 0.874 (0.154) 4.90E-08 0.062 447
Tartronate (Hydroxymalonate) Xenobiotics Food Component/Plant 0.238 (0.047) 1.19E-06 −0.442 41
Ergothioneine Xenobiotics Food Component/Plant −0.213 (0.046) 7.84E-06 0.268 112
X - 24,970 Un-identified −0.389 (0.072) 2.01E-07 0.360 63
X - 24,307 Un-identified 0.512 (0.068) 3.06E-12 −0.340 74
X - 23,739 Un-identified 0.266 (0.056) 3.36E-06 − 0.337 76
X - 12,104 Un-identified 0.349 (0.056) 4.00E-09 −0.319 84
X - 11,632 Un-identified −0.329 (0.052) 2.00E-09 0.318 85
X - 13,684 Un-identified −0.383 (0.077) 1.55E-06 0.317 86
X - 24,306 Un-identified 0.397 (0.059) 1.57E-10 −0.165 184
X - 24,431 Un-identified −0.334 (0.063) 3.10E-07 0.160 190
X - 14,904 Un-identified −0.327 (0.063) 6.26E-07 −0.119 237
X - 10,458 Un-identified −0.303 (0.059) 8.90E-07 0.022 865
  1. These models were linear mixed-effect regression models (LMEM) with random participant-specific intercepts and simultaneously adjusted for PM2.5, NO2, O3, and temperature (multi-pollutant models) for the same exposure window
  2. Beta (SE) and p-values presented are from individual metabolites analysis
  3. All models were adjusted for age (years), body mass index (kg/m2), cigarette pack-years, alcohol intake (< or ≥ 2 drinks per day), socioeconomic status (income payment and years of education), season (warm/cold), and relative humidity
  4. Significant metabolites at ENT95% significance level only are presented
  5. ICA_factor2 rank represents the rank of the corresponding metabolite contributing to factor 2 from the independent component analysis (ICA). Higher rank (and higher weights) means higher contribution to factor 2 of the ICA. We show alongside the weights and ranks of each metabolite that contributes to factor 2 from the ICA only because it was the only significant factor
  6. Range of facto2- ICA rank is from 1 to 1158 i.e., number of examined metabolites. Range of facto2- ICA weight is from − 1 to 1
  7. The metabolites with an X-XXXX format are unknown (to date Metabolon has not been able to name the metabolite) but reproducible (Metabolon is reliably able to characterize this metabolite in multiple samples and studies)
  8. Abbreviations: ENT Effective/independent number of tests, PM2.5 Particulate matter ≤2.5 μm, NO2 Nitrogen dioxide, and O3 Ozone, ICA Independent component analysis, SE Standard error
  9. *Indicates a compound that has not been confirmed based on a standard, but Metabolon is confident in its identity based on a subset of these analytical parameters