Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of 176 Mother-Child Pairs from the Rhea Cohort

From: Prenatal metal mixtures and child blood pressure in the Rhea mother-child cohort in Greece

Participant Characteristic N (%) or Mean (SD)
Maternal Characteristics
Maternal Age, years   30.3 (4.2)  
Pre-Pregnancy BMI, kg/m2   24.0 (4.0)  
Maternal Education
 Low (≤6 years)   18 (10.2)  
 Medium (> 6 years and < 12 years)   90 (51.1)  
 High (≥12 years)   68 (38.6)  
Smoking During Pregnancy
 Non-Smoker   136 (77.3)  
 Smoker   40 (22.7)  
Frequency of Fish and Seafood Consumptiona, Times/Week   1.0 (0.6)  
Child Characteristics
Sex    
 Male   98 (55.7)  
 Female   78 (44.3)  
Elevated Blood Pressure at Age 11 (Static Cutoffs)b
 Elevated   54 (30.7)  
 Normal   122 (69.3)  
Elevated Blood Pressure at Age 11 (Percentile Cutoffs)c
 Elevated   31 (17.6)  
 Normal   145 (82.4)  
Repeated Measurements   4 Years 6 Years 11 Years
Exact Age, years   4.2 (0.2) 6.5 (0.3) 10.9 (0.3)
Height, cm   104.5 (4.2) 120.0 (4.8) 144.3 (6.3)
BMI, kg/m2   16.4 (2.0) 16.8 (2.7) 20.4 (4.1)
Overweight   25 (14.2) 35 (19.9) 58 (33.0)
Obese   10 (5.7) 14 (8.0) 20 (11.4)
Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure   74 (42.8) 64 (36.4) 45 (25.6)
Systolic Blood Pressure, mmHg   90.6 (7.6) 94.0 (8.2) 105.8 (9.4)
Diastolic Blood Pressure, mmHg   53.7 (5.0) 53.9 (6.4) 61.2 (6.9)
  1. an = 150
  2. bElevated blood pressure at age 11 was defined using the static cutoffs recommended by Xi et al. [49]: systolic blood pressure ≥ 110 mmHg and/or a diastolic blood pressure > 70 mmHg
  3. cElevated blood pressure was defined as systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90th percentile for sex, age, and height, according to the 2017 American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines [51]