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Table 2 Descriptive statistics showing covariates and exposures in the analysis of Alzheimer’s disease and Multiple sclerosis, 45-84 years old, 1994-1998

From: Road proximity, air pollution, noise, green space and neurologic disease incidence: a population-based cohort study

LevelCovariates Alzheimer’s disease (N= 13498)Multiple Sclerosis (N=7232)
Case (N= 1227)Control (N = 12271)Case (N= 658)Control (N = 6574)
   Count%Count%Count%Count%
IndividualComorbidityaNo64252.3716458.452780.1530080.6
Yes58547.7510741.613119.9127419.4
NeighborhoodHousehold incomeLowest31225.4294824.011317.2107116.3
Low23819.4236819.313620.7116617.6
Middle20016.3227518.613019.8129319.7
Upper middle25320.6223518.214021.2148322.6
Upper22418.3244519.913921.1156123.8
EducationLess than secondary27522.4288623.513020.8141521.5
Secondary32726.7331427.015924.2175526.7
Post-secondary62550.9607149.536955.0340451.8
Chinese<10% of population in Neighborhood69957.0589048.033751.2314747.9
> 10% of population in Neighborhood52843.0638152.032148.3342752.1
South Asian<10% of population in Neighborhood51341.8612549.932950.0303046.1
> 10% of population in Neighborhood71458.2614650.132950.0354453.9
Visible minority<10% of population in Neighborhood95978.2962578.451878.7513878.2
> 10% of population in Neighborhood26821.8264621.614021.3143621.8
Exposures  Alzheimer’s disease (N= 13498)Multiple Sclerosis (N=7232)
  Case (N= 1227)Control (N = 12271)Case (N= 658)Control (N = 6574)
Road proximity  Count%Count%Count%Count%
Highway <50mNo120398.11206498.364097.3643497.9
Yes241.92071.7182.71402.1
Highway <150mNo116995.31172895.561593.5619494.2
Yes584.75454.5436.53805.8
Major road <50mNo113492.41154394.159189.8608292.5
Yes937.67285.96710.24927.5
Major road <50m or Highway <150mNo108288.21106090.155684.5575987.6
Yes14511.812119.910215.581512.4
Air pollution MinimumMediumMaximumInterquartileMinimumMediumMaximumInterquartileMinimumMediumMaximumInterquartileMinimumMediumMaximumInterquartile
PM2.5 (μg/m³)0.74.010.21.50.04.010.21.50.64.110.21.50.03.910.41.7
Black carbon (μg/m³)0.01.05.01.20.01.05.01.10.01.05.01.30.01.05.00.9
NO2 (ppb)16.428.557.58.212.230.562.49.014.430.157.68.011.829.658.08.8
NO (ppb)13.227.5108.110.46.829.2126.013.911.029.671.314.57.128.1108.913.4
Noise (Lden dB(A)) 44.560.677.25.632.260.785.85.836.260.382.55.433.460.684.45.6
Greenness (NDVI) -0.00.30.60.1-0.10.30.60.10.00.30.50.1-0.10.30.60.1
  1. aComorbidities include traumatic brain injury, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure and arrhythmia