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Table 2 Residential characteristics of the study participants

From: Residential exposure to air pollution and access to neighborhood greenspace in relation to hair cortisol concentrations during the second and third trimester of pregnancy

Variable
Categorical variables (n=149) n (%)
Neighborhood greenspace
Access to small neighborhood greenspace
 No 9 (6.0)
 Yes 140 (94.0)
Access to large neighborhood greenspace
 No 36 (24.2)
 Yes 113 (75.8)
Eurostat urbanization
 Cities 56 (37.6)
 Towns and suburbs 93 (62.4)
 Rural 0
Noise levels
 Lden <  53 dB 97 (65.1)
 Lden ≥ 53 dB 47 (31.5)
 Missing 5 (3.4)
Continuous variables Geometric mean (95% CI)
 Distance to major roads (m) (n=149) 290 (240, 349)
2nd trimester air pollution (μg/m3) (n=133)
 NO90 days prior to sampling 23.03 (21.67, 24.47)
 NO2 1 year prior to sampling 24.55 (23.39, 25.76)
 PM2.5 90 days prior to sampling 11.61 (11.06, 12.21)
 PM2.5 1 year prior to sampling 13.09 (12.81, 13.37)
 BC 90 days prior to sampling 1.13 (1.05, 1.21)
 BC 1 year prior to sampling 1.29 (1.24, 1.36)
3rd trimester air pollution (μg/m3) (n=78)
 NO90 days prior to sampling 23.19 (21.53, 24.98)
 NO2 1 year prior to sampling 24.70 (23.27, 26.23)
 PM2.5 90 days prior to sampling 11.55 (10.95, 12.18)
 PM2.5 1 year prior to sampling 12.70 (12.42, 12.99)
 BC 90 days prior to sampling 1.17 (1.07, 1.28)
 BC 1 year prior to sampling 1.29 (1.21, 1.37)
 Ambient temperature (°Celsius)
 90 days prior to 2nd trimester sampling (n=133) 10.5 (9.7, 11.4)
 90 days prior to 3rd trimester sampling (n=81) 12.6 (11.7, 13.3)
 Area deprivation index (%) (n=149) 16.4 (14.6, 18.1)
  1. Note: Categorical data is described as frequencies (%), continuous data is described by geometric mean with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). All data is based on the maternal residential address. Major roads include E- or N-roads. Access to small neighborhood greenspace is defined as access to > 0.2 ha (ha) of greenspace within a travel distance of 400 m (m) from residence, access to large neighborhood greenspace is defined as access to > 10 ha of greenspace within a travel distance of 800 m from residence. Lden, day–evening–night noise level; NO2, nitrogen dioxide; PM2.5, fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm; BC, black carbon