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Table 5 Associations between residential exposures and hair cortisol concentrations in the second and third pregnancy trimester

From: Residential exposure to air pollution and access to neighborhood greenspace in relation to hair cortisol concentrations during the second and third trimester of pregnancy

  Model I Model II
p-value β (95% CI) p-value β (95% CI)
Second trimester (n = 133)
Exposure (p25-p75)
  3-month mean PM2.5 (9.66–13.64 μg/m3) 0.009 0.81 (0.70, 0.95) 0.200 0.87 (0.70, 1.08)
  3-month mean NO2 (18.37–30.22 μg/m3) 0.934 0.99 (0.83, 1.18) 0.287 1.10 (0.92, 1.34)
  3-month mean BC (0.84–1.49 μg/m3) 0.551 0.94 (0.79, 1.13) 0.775 1.03 (0.84, 1.27)
  Distance to major road (143–642 m) 0.016 0.82 (0.70, 0.96) 0.011 0.82 (0.70, 0.95)
  Access to a small NHGS 0.117 0.68 (0.42, 1.10) 0.061 0.63 (0.38, 1.02)
  Access to a large NHGS 0.073 0.77 (0.57, 1.03) 0.095 0.78 (0.59, 1.04)
Third trimester (n = 81)
Exposure (p25-p75)
  3-month mean PM2.5 (9.59–13.27 μg/m3) 0.227* 1.20 (0.89, 1.62) 0.051* 1.46 (1.01, 2.11)
  3-month mean NO2 (18.35–30.00 μg/m3) 0.016* 1.42 (1.07, 1.88) 0.008* 1.53 (1.12, 2.09)
  3-month mean BC (0.84–1.48 μg/m3) 0.032* 1.37 (1.03, 1.82) 0.017* 1.54 (1.08, 2.18)
  Distance to major road (114–598 m) 0.040 0.74 (0.55, 0.99) 0.055 0.75 (0.56, 1.01)
  Access to a small NHGS 0.354 0.67 (0.28, 1.05) 0.169 0.53 (0.22, 1.32)
  Access to a large NHGS 0.062 0.65 (0.41, 1.02) 0.019 0.57 (0.36, 0.91)
  1. Note: Estimates (β) of the linear regression models are presented with their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) as a factor increase in hair cortisol concentrations for a factor increase in exposure from the 25th to the 75th percentile (p75/p25). Model I is unadjusted, Model II is adjusted for season of sampling, Significant associations (p < 0.05) are marked in bold. *Associations evaluated for 78 participants. Air pollutants were modelled at the maternal home address, 3-month mean concentrations were calculated. Major roads include E- or N-roads. Access to small neighborhood greenspace is defined as access to > 0.2 ha (ha) of greenspace within a travel distance of 400 m (m) from residence, access to large neighborhood greenspace is defined as access to > 10 ha of greenspace within a travel distance of 800 m from residence. CI Confidence interval, NO2 Nitrogen dioxide, PM2.5 Fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm, BC Black carbon, NHGS Neighborhood greenspace. Significant associations (p < 0.05) are marked in bold