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Table 3 Percent excess risk associated with daily SO2 exposure at lag 0–2 (for exposure as a continuous variable, left, and as an indicator for days with pollution levels above the air quality guideline value, right) and respiratory health outcomes in the capital area of Iceland

From: Severe volcanic SO2 exposure and respiratory morbidity in the Icelandic population – a register study

  SO2 (per 10 μg/m3) SO2 levels > 125 μg/m3
% 95% CI % 95% CI
Asthma medication (AMD)   
 Model 1 0.89% 0.29% 1.49% 10.5% 1.8% 20.0%
 Model 2 0.99% 0.39% 1.58% 10.9% 2.1% 19.6%
Primary care MD visits (PCMD)   
 Model 1 1.18% 0.68% 1.69% 16.9% 9.2% 25.0%
 Model 2 1.26% 0.72% 1.80% 17.2% 10.0% 24.4%
Hospital Emergency Department (HED)  
 Model 1 0.83% -0.12% 1.78% 11.7% −1.4% 26.7%
 Model 2 1.02% 0.02% 2.03% 9.4% −3.8% 22.6%
  1. Model 1: Adjusted for season, time trend, day of week, odd holidays, the outcome at lag 1, temperature, and relative humidity. n = 1606
  2. Model 2: Adjusted for season, time trend, day of week, odd holidays, the outcome at lag 1, temperature, relative humidity, NO2, PM10 at the same lags as SO2. n = 1529