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Table 1 Demographic characteristics and sleep outcomes according to urinary fluoride and water fluoride samples (unweighted data showna)

From: Fluoride exposure and duration and quality of sleep in a Canadian population-based sample

  Urinary fluoride sample
(n = 1303)
Water fluoride sample
(n = 1016)
Demographic characteristics
 Age (years); mean (SD) 42.4 (19.0) 43.3 (18.6)
 Total household income (Canadian dollars); Mean (SD) 83,868 (65,489) 87,293 (66,421)
 Ethnicity; n (%)
  White 1052 (80.7) 812 (79.9)
  Non-white 251 (19.3) 204 (20.1)
 Sex; n (%)
  Female 669 (51.3) 515 (50.7)
  Male 634 (48.7) 501 (49.3)
 BMI category; n (%)
  Underweight 39 (3.0) 30 (3)b
  Normal weight 507 (38.9) 417 (41)b
  Overweight 434 (33.3) 345 (34)b
  Obese 323 (24.8) 224 (22)b
 Water fluoridation status; n (%)
  Not fluoridated 387 (29.7) 309 (30.4)
  Fluoridated 415 (31.9) 342 (33.7)
  Missing or mixed fluoridation 501 (38.5) 365 (35.9)
Sleep outcomes
 Sleep duration; n (%)
  Lower than recommended 377 (28.9) 290 (28.5)
  Within recommendedc 858 (65.9) 677 (66.6)
  Higher than recommended 68 (5.2) 49 (4.8)
 Trouble sleeping; n (%)
  Never 389 (29.9) 317 (31.2)
  Rarely 300 (23.0) 246 (24.2)
  Sometimes 306 (23.5) 217 (21.4)
  Most of the time 187 (14.4) 143 (14.1)
  All of the time 121 (9.3) 93 (9.2)
 Trouble staying awake; n (%)
  Never 439 (33.7) 344 (33.9)
  Rarely 383 (29.4) 313 (30.8)
  Sometimes 388 (29.8) 291 (28.6)
  Most of the time 73 (5.6) 68 (6.7)d
  All of the time 20 (1.5) d
  1. aAs directed by Statistics Canada, we are not permitted to report both non-weighted and population-weighted descriptive data. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, SD standard deviation. bApproximate sample sizes and rounded percentages reported due to confidentiality requirements by Statistics Canada. cCategories based on the National Sleep Foundation’s recommendations [30]: 8–10 h if ages 16 to 17 years, 7–9 h if ages 18 to 64, 7–8 h if ages 65 or older. dCategories Most of the time and All of the time were collapsed due to confidentiality requirements by Statistics Canada (value reflects number of participants reporting either response)