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Table 3 Estimated percent changes (95% CI) in HRV, HR and p-values for interaction term in PM2.5/BC-obesity per IQR increase in personal PM2.5 and BC at 2-h moving average in normal-weight and obese groups during the waking and sleeping hours

From: Effect of short-term exposure to particulate air pollution on heart rate variability in normal-weight and obese adults

HRV indices PM2.5 BC
Normal-weight Obese p-value for the interaction term (FDR corrected) Normal-weight Obese p-value for the interaction term (FDR corrected)
Waking hours
 SDNN 4.28(−0.81, 9.62) 0.30(−3.25, 3.98) 0.216 8.31 (3.67, 13.17) 0.96(−2.99, 5.06) 0.024*
 Total power 6.03(−2.47, 15.26) 0.03(−7.36, 7.80) 0.117 17.45 (5.57, 30.67) 9.76(−0.58, 21.18) 0.038*
 HF 2.55(−8.50, 14.94) −18.11(−23.14, −12.75) 0.018* 12.55 (0.74,25.74) −14.79(−21.89, − 7.04) <  0.001*
 LF 2.33(−5.49, 10.79) 0.10(− 7.68, 8.54) 0.269 5.61(−5.15, 17.60) 2.24(−5.10, 10.15) 0.383
 LF/HF 8.94(−0.23, 18.94) 20.67 (12.41, 29.54) 0.112 6.43(− 5.27, 19.57) 37.64 (25.03, 51.51) <  0.001*
 HR −1.10(−3.28, 1.14) 2.81 (0.95, 4.69) 0.010* −3.14(−5.41, −0.82) 3.82 (1.79, 5.89) <  0.001*
Sleeping hours
 SDNN 5.24(−9.44, 22.31) −1.12(− 17.45, 18.44) 0.243 9.64(−5.70, 27.48) −6.28(− 17.26, 6.15) 0.042*
 Total power 17.30(−11.76, 55.94) −28.79(−42.20, − 12.26) 0.176 44.05 (4.33, 98.89) −6.90(− 27.61, 19.72) 0.041*
 HF 28.98 (5.85, 57.17) 78.32 (31.39, 142.01) 0.177 20.10(−4.65, 51.28) −7.91(−26.64, 15.60) 0.012*
 LF 12.72(−21.09, 61.00) 11.78(−23.71, 63.79) 0.368 7.29(−21.17, 46.04) 10.24(−16.73, 45.94) 0.265
 LF/HF −3.79(−25.34, 23.98) −9.90(− 38.61, 32.24) 0.318 7.01(−12.69, 31.16) 4.62(− 21.83, 40.01) 0.250
 HR 14.03 (8.38, 19.98) −7.89(−12.19, −3.38) <  0.001* 6.13 (1.84, 10.59) −1.57(−5.80, 2.85) 0.009*
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence intervals, HRV heart rate variability, HR heart rate, IQR interquartile range, PM2.5 fine particulate matter, BC black carbon, SDNN standard deviation of all normal-to-normal (NN) intervals, HF high frequency power, LF low frequency power, LF/HF ratio of low–high frequency power
  2. * FDR-corrected p < 0.05