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Table 1 Demographic and exposure traits in the sample, restricted to non-smoking children (i.e., urinary Cotinine ≤20 ng/mg)

From: Airborne Benzo[a]Pyrene may contribute to divergent Pheno-Endotypes in children

  Non-atopic
Control
Non-atopic
Asthmatics
  Atopic
Control
Atopic
Asthmatics
 
N = 121
Median
(Interquartile Range)
N = 37
Median
(Interquartile Range)
N = 14
Median
(Interquartile Range)
N = 89
Median
(Interquartile Range)
Benzo[a]pyrene (ng/m3) 3.83 (2.27, 5.45) 11.16 (8.64, 16.00) ** 2.60 (1.80, 3.20) 2.73 (1.80, 8.64)  
corticoid treatment (months) 0 (0, 0) 20 (0, 45) ** 0 (0, 2) 36 (8, 61)
Cotinine / creatinine (μg/g) 7.32 (4.95, 11.63) 7.70 (4.68, 9.91)   7.68 (3.49, 11.28) 6.27 (4.46, 9.37)  
15-F2t-isoP (pg/ml plasma) 150.14 (128.02, 170.64) 151.23 (113.31, 170.82)   140.03 (119.69, 164.35) 148.79 (135.29, 169.90)  
8-oxodG (nmol/mmol creatinine) 5.87 (4.71, 7.40) 5.25 (4.41, 7.26)   4.17 (3.34, 6.04) 5.38 (4.39, 6.91)  
Carbonyls (nmol/ml plasma) 21.01 (18.47, 24.06) 20.36 (18.06, 22.60)   19.82 (17.44, 23.54) 20.15 (18.02, 23.46)  
Age at first diagnosis (months) 127 (26, 165) 17 (4, 50)   61 (13, 107) 31 (6, 67)  
  N (%) N (%)   N (%) N (%)  
Sex (female) 58 (48%) 17 (46%)   6 (43%) 34 (38%)  
BMI category (Overweight/Obese) 10 (8%) 9 (24%) 2 (14%) 23 (26%)  
Lung function deficit (positive) 0 (0%) 7 (19%) ** 0 (0%) 21 (24%)  
Allergic rhinitis (yes) 2 (2%) 3 (8%)   7 (50%) 45 (51%)  
Atopic Dermatitis (Yes) 3 (3%) 20 (54%) ** 5 (36%) 32 (36%)  
Upper Respiratory Infection (Yes) 0 (0%) 2 (5%)   3 (21%) 13 (15%)  
Age group (adolescent) 61 (50%) 16 (43%)   5 (36%) 47 (53%)  
Maternal smoking at home (yes) 14 (12%) 4 (11%)   4 (29%) 13 (15%)  
  1. The symbols ** and † denote P-values < 0.001 and 0.05, respectively. Sample sizes for non-atopic control and atopic control children are 4 and 13, respectively. Non-atopic and atopic asthma case sample sizes are 37 and 89, respectively. All categorical variables are tested using the Chi-square test of linear-by-linear association, and the continuous variables are tested using the Jonkheere-Terpestra test. All categorical variables are dichotomous and add up to 100%. The reference category, which are not shown, are as follows: sex (male), BMI (lean), lung function deficit (negative), allergic rhinitis (no), atopic dermatitis (no), upper respiratory infection (no), age group (pre-adolescent), and maternal smoking (no)