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Table 2 Characteristics of participants, overall and by community, Gauteng province, South Africa, 2016–2020

From: Severity of parkinsonism associated with environmental manganese exposure

  All participants
N = 716
Mn smelter community (Meyerton)
N = 621
Reference community
(Ethembalethu)
N = 95
  n (%) n (%) n (%)
Sex
 Female 405 (56.6) 339 (54.6) 66 (69.5)
 Male 311 (43.4) 282 (45.4) 29 (30.5)
Racea
 Black 706 (98.7) 614 (98.9) 92 (97.9)
 Other 9 (1.3) 7 (1.1) 2 (2.1)
Languageb
 Sesotho 366 (51.3) 352 (57.0) 14 (14.7)
 IsiXhosa 107 (15.0) 99 (16.0) 8 (8.4)
 IsiZulu 107 (15.0) 91 (14.7) 16 (16.8)
 Setswana 44 (6.2) 14 (2.3) 30 (31.6)
 Sepedi 25 (3.5) 19 (3.1) 6 (6.3)
 Other 64 (9.0) 43 (7.0) 21 (22.1)
Educationc
 None/non-formal schooling 100 (14.6) 92 (15.5) 8 (8.9)
 Primary 252 (36.8) 214 (36.0) 38 (42.2)
 Secondary 226 (33.0) 198 (33.3) 28 (31.1)
 Matric or higher 107 (15.6) 91 (15.3) 16 (17.8)
 Unemployedd 354 (50.6) 317 (52.3) 37 (39.4)
Smoking cigarettese
 Never 493 (69.3) 413 (66.6) 80 (87.9)
 Former 57 (8.0) 56 (9.0) 1 (1.1)
 Current 161 (22.6) 151 (24.4) 10 (11.0)
Alcohol use
 Never 367 (51.3) 301 (48.5) 66 (69.5)
 Former 113 (15.8) 101 (16.3) 12 (12.6)
 Current 236 (33.0) 219 (35.3) 17 (17.9)
 Ever Mn occupational exposure 14 (2.0) 14 (2.3) 0 (0.0)
 Current Mn occupational exposure 2 (0.3) 2 (0.3) 0 (0.0)
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Age, years 51.8 (9.2) 51.3 (9.2) 55.3 (8.7)
Minimum 40 40 40
Median 50 49 55
Maximum 97 97 84
  1. Abbreviations: Mn manganese
  2. a Percent excludes 1 participant from Ethembalethu with missing data. Other is White or of mixed race.
  3. b Percent excludes 3 participants from Meyerton with missing data. Other languages are Xitsonga, Afrikaans, SiSwati, Tshivenda, and English.
  4. c Percent excludes 31 participants with missing data (5 from Ethembalethu, and 26 from Meyerton); where primary is grades 1 – 7, secondary is grades 8 – 11, and matric is grade 12.
  5. d Percent excludes 16 participants with missing data (1 from Ethembalethu, and 15 from Meyerton).
  6. e Percent excludes 5 participants with missing data (4 from Ethembalethu, and 1 from Meyerton).