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Table 5 Grooved pegboard and kinematic motor outcomes, overall and by community, Gauteng province, South Africa, 2016–2020

From: Severity of parkinsonism associated with environmental manganese exposure

  All participants
N = 716
Mn smelter community (Meyerton)
N = 621
Reference community
(Ethembalethu)
N = 95
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Grooved pegboard test, time (seconds)a
 Dominant hand 108.0 (43.1) 107.0 (43.0)b 114.6 (43.4)c
 Minimum 43.2 43.2 59.2
 25th percentile 80.2 79.9 82.0
 Median 93.8 93.5 114.0
 75th percentile 124.8 120.1 141.2
 Maximum 300.0 300.0 300.0
 Non-dominant hand 118.0 (47.1) 117.5 (47.4)b 121.4 (44.8)c
 Minimum 51.4 51.4 60.0
 25th percentile 86.9 87.1 85.1
 Median 103.8 103.2 114.7
 75th percentile 131.7 130.3 150.3
 Maximum 300.0 300.0 241.1
Kinematic test – finger-tapping mean velocity (degrees/second)a
 Dominant hand 312.4 (113.2) 298.2 (106.0)b 366.6 (123.5)c
 Minimum 59.0 59.0 121.9
 25th percentile 222.7 217.3 275.9
 Median 302.7 289.7 355.8
 75th percentile 384.6 362.2 445.5
 Maximum 679.0 590.5 679.0
 Non-dominant hand 353.3 (119.2) 338.2 (111.7)b 411.0 (129.5)c
 Minimum 87.8 87.8 168.5
 25th percentile 271.2 262.6 316.3
 Median 342.7 326.8 412.9
 75th percentile 426.3 399.4 509.4
 Maximum 764.4 727.0 764.4
  1. Abbreviations: Mn manganese
  2. a Poorer motor performance is indicated by greater grooved pegboard times and lower finger-tapping velocities
  3. b Excludes 16 participants (grooved pegboard in dominant hand and non-dominant hand) and 275 participants (kinematic test in dominant and non-dominant hand) with missing data
  4. c Excludes two participants (grooved pegboard in dominant and non-dominant hand) and four participants (kinematic test in dominant and non-dominant hand) with missing data