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Table 2 Logical Fallacies in Strategies to Manufacture Doubt

From: The science of spin: targeted strategies to manufacture doubt with detrimental effects on environmental and public health

  Strategy Logical Fallacy
2 Gain Support from Reputable Individuals Appeal to authority (ad vercundiam): saying that because an “authority” believes something, it must be true
3 Misrepresent Data Texas Sharpshooter: utilizing a subset of evidence that supports a theory but ignoring the full picture
9 Blame Other Causes Questionable Cause (cum hoc ergo propter hoc): confusing correlation with causation
11 Define How to Measure Outcome/Exposure Definist Fallacy: redefine a term to make a position easier to argue
13 Pose as a Defender of Health or Truth Righteousness Fallacy: using evidence of good intentions to support other claims
22 Attack Opponents Ad hominem: by attacking the arguer instead of the argument, the argument can be dismissed
23 Appeal to Emotion Appealing to emotion: manipulating an emotional response in place of a valid, factual, compelling argument
25 Make Straw Man Arguments Strawman argument: Misrepresenting an argument to make it easier to attack
26 Abuse Credentials Use of false authority: using an expert with dubious or unrelated credentials to promote the industry’s position
28 Claim Slippery Slope Slippery Slope: avoiding the main argument by using extreme hypotheticals as distractions