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Table 2 Descriptive statistics of overall yearly rate of change in CIMT (μm/year) from childhood (age 10–11 years) to adulthood (age 21–22 years) by participant characteristics (N = 70)

From: Childhood traffic-related air pollution and adverse changes in subclinical atherosclerosis measures from childhood to adulthood

  N (%) Mean Rate of Change CIMT (μm/year) SD p-valuea
Sex     0.62
 Male 29 (41.4) 1.45 4.92  
 Female 41 (58.6) 2.18 6.50  
Race     0.60
 White 44 (62.9) 1.73 3.48  
 More than one race 14 (20.0) 1.30 4.05  
 Otherb 5 (7.1) 5.31 18.35  
 Unknown/not reported 7 (10.0) 1.50 6.17  
Ethnicity     0.26
 Hispanic 38 (54.3) 1.04 4.29  
 Non-Hispanic 30 (42.8) 3.14 7.24  
 Unknown/not reported 2 (2.9) −1.14 9.15  
Parental Educational Attainment      0.34
 High school or less 18 (25.7) 0.32 5.24  
 Some college or technical school 21 (30.0) 1.72 3.83  
 Completed college or more 31 (44.3) 2.89 7.16  
BMI category - child measurement     0.01
 Underweight (< 18.5) 5 (7.1) 1.25 5.42  
 Normal (18.5 to < 25) 44 (62.9) 1.51 4.02  
 Overweight (25 to < 30) 14 (20.0) 0.02 3.55  
 Obese (≥30) 7 (10.0) 8.35 13.21  
BMI category - adult measurement     0.01
 Underweight (< 18.5) 3 (4.3) 2.74 1.32  
 Normal (18.5 to < 25) 42 (60.0) 1.05 4.29  
 Overweight (25 to < 30) 18 (25.7) 1.08 3.95  
 Obese (≥30) 7 (10.0) 8.50 12.91  
Change in BMI category     0.27
 Underweight/normal - no change 40 (57.1) 1.47 4.16  
 Overweight/obese - no change 16 (22.9) 4.09 9.54  
 Underweight/normal to overweight/obese 9 (12.9) 1.51 4.16  
 Overweight/obese to underweight/normal 5 (7.1) −1.33 3.79  
Change Direction in BMI Category     0.37
 Decrease 10 (14.2) −0.10 3.70  
 No change 44 (62.9) 2.59 6.68  
 Increase 16 (22.9) 1.15 4.20  
Child Systolic Blood Pressure     0.14
 Below 75th percentile (< 106 mmHg) 52 (74.3) 1.27 3.91  
 Above 75th percentile (≥106 mmHg) 18 (25.7) 3.62 9.46  
Adult Systolic Blood Pressure     0.59
 Below 75th percentile (< 111 mmHg) 51 (67.9) 1.65 6.20  
 Above 75th percentile (≥111 mmHg) 19 (27.1) 2.50 4.95  
Change in Systolic Blood Pressure     0.42
 Below 75th percentile (< 8.7 mmHg change) 42 (60.0) 1.41 6.62  
 Above 75th percentile (≥8.7 mmHg change) 28 (40.0) 2.57 4.53  
Smoking status     0.14
 Never smoked 45 (64.3) 2.88 6.61  
 Smoked but not in past 12 months 15 (21.4) 0.59 4.12  
 Smoked in past 12 months 10 (14.3) −0.69 2.96  
Any family history of CV eventsc     0.19
 No 27 (38.6) 0.85 3.87  
 Yes 43 (61.4) 2.52 6.79  
  1. aAs determined by t-test or one-way ANOVA; bold values represent p < 0.05
  2. bOther includes Asian, Pacific Islander, Alaska Native and American Indian
  3. cEvents include hyperlipidemia (high cholesterol), hypertension (high blood pressure), stroke, coronary artery disease, and/or any other heart disease for any biological family members