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Table 3 Estimates of association between ambient and traffic-related air pollutants and rate of change in CIMT (μm) per year from childhood to adulthood, adjusted for personal smoking, adult BMI and parental education (N = 70)

From: Childhood traffic-related air pollution and adverse changes in subclinical atherosclerosis measures from childhood to adulthood

  Estimate (95% CI) per 1 SD increase in exposurea P-value
Ambient Pollutants (monthly average)
 Daily 8-h max O3 concentration (ppb) −1.02 (− 2.41, 0.36) 0.14
 24-h average PM2.5 concentration (μg/m3) − 0.40 (− 1.75, 0.96) 0.56
 24-h average PM10 concentration (μg/m3) −0.51 (− 1.85, 0.85) 0.46
 24-h average NO2 concentration (μg/m3) 0.17 (−1.19, 1.53) 0.81
Local Traffic-Related Pollutants/Measures
 Total NOx (ppb) 2.17 (0.78, 3.56) 0.003
 Freeway NOx (ppb) 2.24 (0.84, 3.63) 0.002
 Non-Freeway NOx (ppb) 0.60 (−0.78, 1.98) 0.39
 Traffic Density (within 300 m buffer) 2.11 (0.79, 3.43) 0.002
  1. aEstimates are each scaled to represent yearly change in CIMT relative to a 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in childhood exposure to the corresponding pollutant