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Table 4 Change in the number of respiratory consultations (% and 95 Confidence Intervals (CI)) associated with an interquartile increase in short- (daily, ‘lag 0’) and long- (2009–2013) term NO2, PM10, PM2.5 and O3 concentrations. Results from mixed effects zero-inflated negative binomial model adjusting for day of the week, temperature, relative humidity, time trend, proportion of elderly residents and index of multiple deprivation

From: Spatio-temporal associations of air pollutant concentrations, GP respiratory consultations and respiratory inhaler prescriptions: a 5-year study of primary care in the borough of Lambeth, South London

Air pollutant Outcome variable: change in consultations All ages 0–17 years 18–64 years 65 + years
NO2 Short term, % change (95% CI)
Total respiratory consultations 1.16 (0.69, 1.63) 2.37 (1.47, 3.28) 1.16 (0.56, 1.77) 2.16 (1.20, 3.13)
Consultations for asthma, COPD, URTI 0.92 (0.25, 1.59) 1.37 (0.34, 2.40) 0.52 (−0.34, 1.39) 1.90 (0.44, 3.38)
Long term, % change (95% CI)
Total respiratory consultations 2.15 (− 3.76, 8.43) −7.89 (− 14.62, −0.63) 4.85 (− 1.43, 11.52) 7.11 (− 1.83, 16.88)
Consultations for asthma, COPD, URTI 0.83 (− 7.57, 9.99) −8.51 (− 15.96, − 0.40) 5.59 (− 3.34, 15.35) 5.21 (− 9.79, 22.71)
PM10 Short-term % change (95% CI)
Total respiratory consultations 1.01 (0.68, 1.34) 3.04 (2.41, 3.67) 0.79 (0.37, 1.22) 1.06 (0.40, 1.72)
Consultations for asthma, COPD, URTI 1.98 (1.50, 2.46) 3.38 (2.65, 4.11) 1.36 (0.75, 1.98) 1.40 (0.39, 2.41)
Long-term % change (95% CI)
Total respiratory consultations 0.18 (−2.95, 3.42) −1.18 (−5.15, 2.95) 0.79 (− 2.48, 4.17) 0.92 (−3.72, 5.79)
Consultations for asthma, COPD, URTI 0.24 (−4.31, 5.00) −0.91 (−5.35, 3.73) 1.67 (− 3.02, 6.58) − 1.26 (−9.07, 7.23)
PM2.5 Short-term % change (95% CI)
Total respiratory consultations 0.19 (−0.12, 0.51) 1.40 (0.81, 2.00) 0.02 (−0.39, 0.43) 0.35 (−0.28, 0.97)
Consultations for asthma, COPD, URTI 0.78 (0.33, 1.24) 1.61 (0.92, 2.30) 0.36 (−0.22, 0.95) 0.66 (−0.29, 1.62)
Long-term % change (95% CI)
Total respiratory consultations −2.41 (−7.85, 3.35) −8.42 (−14.85, −1.49) 1.21 (−4.65, 7.43) −2.85 (− 10.77, 5.78)
Consultations for asthma, COPD, URTI −3.52 (− 11.27, 4.91) −9.51 (− 16.59, − 1.82) 2.16 (−6.20, 11.25) − 7.38 (− 20.17, 7.45)
O3 Short-term % change (95% CI)
Total respiratory consultations − 2.62 (− 3.26, − 1.98) −5.01 (−6.18, − 3.83) −2.69 (− 3.52, − 1.85) − 3.38 (− 4.65, − 2.10)
Consultations for asthma, COPD, URTI −2.87 (− 3.78, − 1.95) − 4.58 (− 5.93, − 3.20) −2.27 (− 3.46, − 1.06) −1.95 (− 3.92, 0.06)
Long-term % change (95% CI)
Total respiratory consultations 2.18 (− 2.83, 7.44) 5.12 (−1.43, 12.11) − 0.09 (− 5.19, 5.28) 3.76 (− 3.63, 11.71)
Consultations for asthma, COPD, URTI 5.95 (− 16.53,9.58) 5.83 (− 1.52, 13.73) 2.03 (− 5.32, 9.95) 20.21 (5.88, 36.49)