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Table 2 Frequency (and percent) of GDM status by ethnic enclave residence and maternal characteristics among Asian/Pacific Islander women in the Consortium on Safe Labor among Asian/Pacific Islander women (n = 9069)

From: Joint effects of ethnic enclave residence and ambient volatile organic compounds exposure on risk of gestational diabetes mellitus among Asian/Pacific Islander women in the United States

  Gestational Diabetes Mellitus p-valuesa
  Yes
(n = 899)
No
(n = 8170)
 
Ethnic enclave
 Yes (1891) 142 (7.5) 1749 (92.5) p < .01
 No (7178) 757 (10.5) 6421 (89.5)  
Maternal Age
  < 20 years (168) 4 (2.34) 164 (97.4) p < .01
 20–24 years (1289) 74 (5.7) 1215 (94.3)  
 25–29 years (2797) 226 (8.1) 2571 (91.9)  
 30–34 years (2958) 318 (10.8) 2640 (89.2)  
 35+ years (1851) 277 (15.0) 1574 (85.0)  
 Unknown/Missing [6] 0 (0.0) 6 (100.0)  
Body Mass Index
  ≥ 30 (425) 75 (17.7) 350 (82.3) p < .01
 25–29.9 (744) 111 (14.9) 633 (85.1)  
 18.5–24.9 (3466) 282 (8.1) 3184 (91.9)  
 11.2–18.49 (621) 31 (5.0) 590 (95.0)  
 Unknown (3813) 400 (10.5) 3413 (89.5)  
Insurance Type
 Private (6374) 677 (10.6) 5697 (89.4) p < .01
 Public (1280) 124 (9.7) 1156 (90.3)  
 Self Pay (193) 18 (9.3) 175 (90.7)  
 Other (1222) 80 (6.5) 1142 (93.5)  
Marital Status
 Married (7642) 800 (10.5) 6842 (89.5) p < .01
 Single (1241) 78 (6.3) 1163 (93.7)  
 Divorced (186) 21 (11.3) 165 (88.7)  
Parity
 0 (4433) 395 (8.9) 4038 (91.1) p < .01
  ≥ 1 (4636) 504 (10.9) 4132 (89.1)  
Hospital Type
 University Affiliated (3716) 329 (8.9) 3387 (91.1) p < .01
 Community: Teaching (4948) 541 (10.9) 4407 (89.1)  
 Community: Non-teaching (405) 29 (7.2) 376 (92.8)  
Season of Conception
 March–May (2140) 203 (9.5) 1937 (90.5) p = .05
 June–August (2363) 208 (8.8) 2155 (91.2)  
 September–November (2437) 250 (10.3) 2187 (89.7)  
 December–February (2129) 238 (11.2) 1891 (88.8)  
Area-Level Poverty
  ≥ 15.9% (3323) 348 (10.5) 2975 (89.5) p = .17
  < 15.9% (5746) 551 (9.6) 5195 (90.4)  
  1. aP-values obtain using generalized estimating equations to account for women with > 1 pregnancy