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Table 3 Frequency (and percent) of gestational diabetes mellitus status by joint preconception VOC-Enclave category among Asian/Pacific Islander women in the Consortium on Safe Labor (2002–2008)

From: Joint effects of ethnic enclave residence and ambient volatile organic compounds exposure on risk of gestational diabetes mellitus among Asian/Pacific Islander women in the United States

   Preconception First Trimester
VOC
(High = ≥ 75th percentile)
Enclave n
(N = 9069)
GDM
(N = 899)
No GDM (n = 8170) p valuea n
(N = 9069)
GDM
(N = 899)
No GDM (n = 8170) p valuea
Benzene Low Yes 242 13 (5.3) 229 (94.6) p < .01 245 15 (6.1) 230 (93.9) p < .01
No 4115 415 (10.0) 3700 (90.0)   4179 420 (10.0) 3759 (90.0)  
High Yes 1649 129 (7.8) 1520 (92.2)   1646 127 (7.7) 1519 (92.3)  
No 3063 342 (11.1) 2721 (88.9)   2999 337 (11.2) 2662 (88.8)  
Ethylbenzene Low Yes 245 15 (6.1) 230 (93.9) p < .01 245 15 (6.1) 230 (93.9) p < .01
No 3916 406 (10.3) 3510 (89.7)   3943 412 (10.4) 3531 (89.6)  
High Yes 1646 127 (7.7) 1519 (92.3)   1646 127 (7.7) 1519 (92.3)  
No 3262 351 (10.7) 2911 (89.3)   3235 345 (10.6) 2890 (89.4)  
MTB Ether Low Yes 738 63 (8.5) 675 (91.5) p < .01 596 50 (8.4) 546 (91.6) p < .01
No 4578 437 (9.5) 4141 (90.5)   4436 419 (9.4) 4017 (90.6)  
High Yes 1153 79 (6.9) 1074 (93.1)   1295 92 (7.1) 1203 (92.9)  
No 2600 320 (12.3) 2280 (87.7)   2742 338 (12.3) 2404 (87.7)  
N-hexane Low Yes 535 44 (8.22) 491 (91.8) p < .01 410 32 (7.8) 378 (92.2) p < .01
No 3834 373 (9.7) 3461 (90.3)   3984 388 (9.7) 3596 (90.3)  
High Yes 1356 98 (7.2) 1258 (92.8)   1481 110 (7.4) 1371 (92.6)  
No 3344 384 (11.5) 2960 (88.5)   3194 369 (11.5) 2825 (88.5)  
EMK Low Yes 739 58 (7.8) 681 (92.2) p < .01 627 54 (8.6) 573 (91.4) p < .01
No 4827 490 (10.1) 4337 (89.9)   4615 460 (9.9) 4155 (90.1)  
High Yes 1152 84 (7.3) 1068 (92.7)   1264 88 (6.9) 1176 (93.1)  
No 2351 267 (11.3) 2084 (88.7)   2563 297 (11.6) 2266 (88.4)  
m-xylene Low Yes 245 15 (6.1) 230 (93.9) p < .01 245 15 (6.1) 230 (93.9) p < .01
No 3909 408 (10.4) 3501 (89.6)   3926 410 (10.4) 3516 (89.6)  
High Yes 1646 127 (7.7) 1519 (92.3)   1646 127 (7.7) 1519 (92.3)  
No 3269 349 (10.7) 2920 (89.3)   3252 347 (10.7) 2905 (89.3)  
o-xylene Low Yes 304 18 (5.9) 286 (94.1) p < .01 246 15 (6.1) 231 (93.9) p < .01
No 3897 405 (10.4) 3492 (89.6)   3936 410 (10.4) 3526 (89.6)  
High Yes 1587 124 (7.8) 1463 (92.2)   1645 127 (7.7) 1518 (92.3)  
No 3281 352 (10.7) 2929 (89.3)   3242 347 (10.7) 2895 (89.3)  
p-xylene Low Yes 438 31 (7.1) 407 (92.9) p < .01 338 24 (7.1) 314 (92.9) p < .01
No 3868 399 (10.3) 3469 (89.7)   3900 406 (10.4) 3494 (89.6)  
High Yes 1453 111 (7.6) 1342 (92.4)   1553 118 (7.6) 1435 (92.4)  
No 3310 358 (10.8) 2952 (89.2)   3278 351 (10.7) 2927 (89.3)  
Propene Low Yes 827 67 (8.1) 760 (91.9) p < .01 945 74 (7.8) 871 (92.2) p < .01
No 4728 449 (9.5) 4279 (90.5)   4471 420 (9.4) 4051 (90.6)  
High Yes 1064 75 (7.1) 989 (92.9)   946 68 (7.1) 878 (92.9)  
No 2450 308 (12.6) 2142 (87.4)   2707 337 (12.5) 2370 (87.5)  
Sesquiterpene Low Yes 818 62 (7.5) 756 (92.5) p < .01 741 62 (8.4) 679 (91.6) p < .01
No 3753 355 (9.5) 3398 (90.5)   3841 360 (9.4) 3481 (90.6)  
High Yes 1073 80 (7.5) 993 (92.5)   1150 80 (6.9) 1070 (93.1)  
No 3425 402 (11.7) 3023 (88.2)   3337 397 (11.9) 2940 (88.1)  
Toluene Low Yes 334 19 (5.7) 315 (94.3) p < .01 245 15 (6.1) 230 (93.9) p < .01
No 3891 407 (10.5) 3484 (89.5)   3934 411 (10.5) 3523 (89.5)  
High Yes 1557 123 (7.9) 1434 (92.1)   1646 127 (7.7) 1519 (92.3)  
No 3287 350 (10.6) 2937 (89.4)   3244 346 (10.7) 2898 (89.3)  
Styrene Low Yes 736 64 (8.7) 672 (91.3) p < .01 619 52 (8.4) 567 (91.6) p < .01
No 6268 657 (10.5) 5611 (89.5)   6266 661 (10.6) 5605 (89.4)  
High Yes 1155 78 (6.7) 1077 (93.3)   1272 90 (7.1) 1182 (92.9)  
No 910 100 (11.0) 810 (89.0)   912 96 (10.5) 816 (89.5)  
1,3 butadiene Low Yes 732 64 (8.7) 668 (91.3) p < .01 595 51 (8.6) 544 (91.4) p < .01
No 6197 642 (10.4) 5555 (89.6)   6354 673 (10.6) 5681 (89.4)  
High Yes 1159 78 (6.7) 1081 (92.3)   1296 91 (7.0) 1205 (93.0)  
No 981 115 (11.7) 866 (88.3)   824 84 (10.1) 740 (89.9)  
Cyclohexane Low Yes 1022 66 (6.5) 956 (93.5) p < .01 1016 74 (7.3) 942 (92.7) p < .01
No 3747 391 (10.4) 3356 (89.6)   3794 400 (10.5) 3394 (89.5)  
High Yes 869 76 (8.7) 793 (91.3)   875 68 (7.8) 807 (92.3)  
No 3431 366 (10.7) 3065 (89.3)   3384 357 (10.6) 3027 (89.5)  
  1. aP-values obtain using generalized estimating equations to account for women who had more than one pregnancy in the study