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Table 4 Joint associations between exposure to ambient volatile organic compounds, ethnic enclaves, and gestational diabetes mellitus among Asian/Pacific Islander women in the Consortium on Safe Labor (2002–2008)

From: Joint effects of ethnic enclave residence and ambient volatile organic compounds exposure on risk of gestational diabetes mellitus among Asian/Pacific Islander women in the United States

  Preconception First Trimester
VOC
(High = ≥ 75th percentile)
Enclave n
(N = 9069)
Odds Ratio
(95% CI)
n
(N = 9069)
Odds Ratio
(95% CI)
Benzene Low Yes 242 Ref. 245 Ref.
No 4115 2.85 (1.57, 5.17)a 4179 2.38 (1.36, 4.16)a
High Yes 1649 2.07 (1.09, 3.94)a 1646 1.65 (0.90, 3.03)
No 3063 3.45 (1.77, 6.72)a 2999 2.70 (1.45, 5.03)a
Ethylbenzene Low Yes 245 Ref. 245 Ref.
No 3916 2.43 (1.37, 4.32)a 3943 2.30 (1.29, 4.09)a
High Yes 1646 1.70 (0.90, 3.22) 1646 1.56 (0.82, 2.95)
No 3262 2.76 (1.32, 5.75)a 3235 2.29 (1.10, 4.77)a
MTB Ether Low Yes 738 Ref. 596 Ref.
No 4578 1.38 (1.02, 1.87)a 4436 1.40 (1.01, 1.95)
High Yes 1153 0.87 (0.58, 1.31) 1295 0.90 (0.60, 1.36)
No 2600 1.84 (1.34, 2.52)a 2742 1.88 (1.33, 2.66)a
N-hexane Low Yes 535 Ref. 410 Ref.
No 3834 1.56 (1.11, 2.20)a 3984 1.72 (1.16, 2.55)a
High Yes 1356 1.03 (0.68, 1.57) 1481 1.16 (0.74, 1.83)
No 3344 2.09 (1.39, 3.15)a 3194 2.25 (1.43, 3.53)a
EMK Low Yes 739 Ref. 627 Ref.
No 4827 1.62 (1.19, 2.20)a 4615 1.43 (1.04, 1.96)a
High Yes 1152 1.09 (0.72, 1.63) 1264 0.85 (0.57, 1.28)
No 2351 1.84 (1.32, 2.58)a 2563 1.67 (1.18, 2.36)a
m-xylene Low Yes 245 Ref. 245 Ref.
No 3909 2.33 (1.31, 4.15)a 3926 2.30 (1.29, 4.08)a
High Yes 1646 1.59 (0.84, 3.01) 1646 1.55 (0.82, 2.94)
No 3269 2.40 (1.15, 5.00)a 3252 2.27 (1.08, 4.76)a
o-xylene Low Yes 304 Ref. 246 Ref.
No 3897 2.37 (1.42, 3.98)a 3936 2.35 (1.32, 4.17)a
High Yes 1587 1.66 (0.94, 2.94) 1645 1.60 (0.85, 3.04)
No 3281 2.52 (1.30, 4.87)a 3242 2.42 (1.15, 5.09)a
p-xylene Low Yes 438 Ref. 338 Ref.
No 3868 1.87 (1.25, 2.78)a 3900 1.93 (1.23, 3.03)a
High Yes 1453 1.27 (0.80, 2.03) 1553 1.29 (0.77, 2.16)
No 3310 2.02 (1.20, 3.40)a 3278 1.93 (1.06, 3.53)a
Propene Low Yes 827 Ref. 945 Ref.
No 4728 1.44 (1.07, 1.93)a 4471 1.45 (1.09, 1.93)a
High Yes 1064 0.93 (0.64, 1.36) 946 0.94 (0.66, 1.34)
No 2450 1.99 (1.46, 2.72)a 2707 1.96 (1.44, 2.67)a
Sesquiterpene Low Yes 818 Ref. 741 Ref.
No 3753 1.55 (1.15, 2.10)a 3841 1.38 (1.02, 1.87)a
High Yes 1073 1.13 (0.77, 1.65) 1150 0.87 (0.59, 1.28)
No 3425 2.23 (1.59, 3.14)a 3337 1.91 (1.36, 2.69)a
Toluene Low Yes 334 Ref. 245 Ref.
No 3891 2.39 (1.45, 3.95)a 3934 2.31 (1.30, 4.11)a
High Yes 1557 1.68 (0.96, 2.91) 1646 1.57 (0.83, 2.97)
No 3287 2.38 (1.25, 4.52)a 3244 2.31 (1.09, 4.89)a
Styrene Low Yes 736 Ref. 619 Ref.
No 6268 1.41 (1.04, 1.93)a 6266 1.47 (1.05, 2.06)a
High Yes 1155 0.84 (0.56, 1.26) 1272 0.89 (0.59, 1.34)
No 910 1.59 (1.13, 2.24)a 912 1.56 (1.08, 2.25)a
1,3 butadiene Low Yes 732 Ref. 595 Ref.
No 6197 1.39 (1.02, 1.88)a 6354 1.48 (1.06, 2.06)a
High Yes 1159 0.83 (0.55, 1.25) 1296 0.86 (0.57, 1.29)
No 981 1.67 (1.19, 2.33)a 824 1.46 (1.01, 2.13)a
Cyclohexane Low Yes 1022 Ref. 1016 Ref.
No 3747 1.86 (1.37, 2.53)a 3794 1.70 (1.26, 2.28)a
High Yes 869 1.31 (0.92, 1.87) 875 1.08 (0.76, 1.54)
No 3431 1.73 (1.15, 2.59)a 3384 1.46 (0.98, 2.18)
  1. Analytic sample restricted to Asian/Pacific Islander women without diagnosed preconception diabetes. Hierarchical logistic regression, women nested within hospital referral region. Models adjusted for maternal age, preconception BMI, parity, insurance status, hospital, marital status, area-level poverty, season of birth. astatistically significant after Benjamini-Hochberg procedure (false discovery rate = 10%)