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Table 1 Summary of the epidemiologic studies reviewed, according to the direction of association of PFAS exposure on outcomes in the proposed pathway

From: A pathway level analysis of PFAS exposure and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus

Outcome Positive Negative Null,
Positive Trendb
Null,
Negative Trendb
GDM 36% (4/11 studies) 0% (0/11 studies) 91% (10/11 studies) 64% (7/11 studies)
Maternal Blood
Glucose homeostasis biomarkersa 73% (8/11 studies) 18% (2/11 studies) 45% (5/11 studies) 45% (5/11 studies)
T3 50% (2/4 studies) 50% (2/4 studies) 25% (1/4 studies) 25% (1/4 studies)
FT3 33% (2/6 studies) 33% (2/6 studies) 17% (1/6 studies) 17% (1/6 studies)
T4 20% (1/5 studies) 40% (2/5 studies) 20% (1/5 studies) 20% (1/5 studies)
FT4 20% (2/10 studies) 40% (4/10 studies) 20% (2/10 studies) 30% (3/10 studies)
TSH 45% (5/11 studies) 18% (2/11 studies) 18% (2/11 studies) 9% (1/11 studies)
  1. Abbreviations: GDM gestational diabetes mellitus, FT3 free triiodothyronine, FT4 free thyroxine, T3 triiodothyronine, T4 thyroxine, TSH thyrotropin
  2. aGlucose homeostasis biomarkers: isolated hyperglycemia, impaired glucose tolerance, blood glucose and insulin levels, insulin resistance
  3. bCriteria defined in detail in the Methods (Supplement)