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Table 2 Risk of outcomes in PM 10 concentration for average of 1 year from events day

From: Clinical outcomes associated with long-term exposure to airborne particulate pollution in kidney transplant recipients

  BPR DCGF All-cause mortality
Variables HR 95% CI P Value HR 95% CI P Value HR 95% CI P Value
Age at transplantation 1 0.991 1.009 0.9997 0.974 0.948 1.002 0.0647 1.071 1.033 1.109 0.0001
Smoking 1.168 0.880 1.549 0.2828 1.091 0.507 2.350 0.8235 0.457 0.129 1.612 0.2233
Body mass index 1 0.999 1.001 0.6925 0.928 0.844 1.022 0.1279 0.905 0.801 1.022 0.1087
Hypertension 0.905 0.645 1.269 0.5629 1.198 0.274 5.245 0.8108 0.926 0.116 7.369 0.9422
Diabetes mellitus 0.872 0.675 1.127 0.2948 0.895 0.420 1.907 0.7731 1.167 0.502 2.710 0.72
Sex (male) 1.083 0.885 1.324 0.4382 2.232 1.213 4.107 0.0098 1.772 0.834 3.767 0.1368
HLA mismatch 1.213 1.145 1.285 <.0001 1.182 1.006 1.389 0.0419 0.995 0.805 1.230 0.9628
Cause of ESRD (DM) 1.137 0.808 1.601 0.4602 2.404 0.958 6.035 0.0618 1.381 0.515 3.704 0.521
Cause of ESRD (HTN) 0.986 0.607 1.601 0.9532 1.663 0.471 5.868 0.4291 1.367 0.375 4.983 0.6358
Cause of ESRD (GN) 0.95 0.762 1.185 0.6504 0.682 0.374 1.243 0.2113 0.603 0.256 1.419 0.2466
Cause of ESRD (others) 0.981 0.683 1.409 0.9187     a     a
Phosphorus 1.047 0.989 1.108 0.1147 1.252 1.089 1.440 0.0016 1.2 0.995 1.447 0.0564
Albumin 0.885 0.781 1.002 0.0543 0.444 0.323 0.611 <.0001 0.669 0.440 1.015 0.0589
eGFR at 6 months 0.987 0.981 0.994 <.0001 0.965 0.946 0.984 0.0003 0.999 0.977 1.022 0.9439
preemptive 0.895 0.706 1.134 0.3579 0.815 0.445 1.494 0.509 0.992 0.438 2.247 0.9855
Annual mean PM10 1.053 1.042 1.063 <.0001 1.049 1.014 1.084 0.0055 1.09 1.043 1.140 0.0001
Donor age 1.012 1.004 1.020 0.0036 0.993 0.971 1.016 0.5561 1.005 0.978 1.033 0.7062
Donor sex (male) 1.146 0.944 1.392 0.1693 1.066 0.633 1.795 0.81 1.539 0.761 3.110 0.2298
Donor type (Deceased) 1.355 1.074 1.709 0.0105 1.724 0.884 3.361 0.1098 1.907 0.881 4.129 0.1015
ABO-incompatible 1.935 1.330 2.816 0.0006 1.897 0.549 6.558 0.3116 1.205 0.151 9.642 0.8602
  1. Data are presented as mean and standard deviation unless otherwise indicated. Covariates are given as measured at the time of kidney transplantation. BPR biopsy-proven rejection, DCGF death-censored graft failure, HLA human leukocyte antigen, ESRD end stage renal disease, DM diabetes mellitus, HTN hypertension, GN glomerulonephritis, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate. The multivariable model was adjusted for age, smoking, BMI, hypertension, DM, sex, HLA mismatch, cause of ESRD, serum phosphorus, albumin, eGFR at 6 months, preemptive, annual mean PM10, donor age, sex, donor type, and ABO-incompatible
  2. aThese are unestimable due to the lack of the events