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Table 3 Risk of outcomes of 1-year average PM10 concentrations based on a random-effects model

From: Clinical outcomes associated with long-term exposure to airborne particulate pollution in kidney transplant recipients

  BPR DCGF All-cause mortality
Variables HR 95% CI P Value HR 95% CI P Value HR 95% CI P Value
Age at transplantation 1 0.991 1.009 0.9275 0.974 0.948 1.002 0.0647 1.07 1.033 1.108 0.0002
Smoking 1.215 0.914 1.614 0.1806 1.091 0.507 2.350 0.8235 0.463 0.131 1.631 0.2304
Body mass index 1 0.999 1.001 0.5951 0.928 0.844 1.022 0.1279 0.904 0.800 1.022 0.1077
Hypertension 0.909 0.647 1.277 0.582 1.198 0.274 5.245 0.8108 0.93 0.117 7.397 0.9455
Diabetes mellitus 0.888 0.686 1.148 0.3631 0.895 0.420 1.907 0.7731 1.159 0.499 2.692 0.7314
Sex (male) 1.064 0.870 1.302 0.5473 2.232 1.213 4.107 0.0098 1.747 0.821 3.716 0.1477
HLA mismatch 1.217 1.149 1.289 <.0001 1.182 1.006 1.389 0.0419 1 0.808 1.237 0.9988
Cause of ESRD (DM) 1.158 0.823 1.630 0.3998 2.404 0.958 6.036 0.0617 1.417 0.528 3.804 0.4893
Cause of ESRD (HTN) 1 0.615 1.626 0.9993 1.663 0.471 5.868 0.429 1.369 0.375 4.997 0.6347
Cause of ESRD (GN) 0.955 0.765 1.193 0.6881 0.682 0.374 1.243 0.2113 0.602 0.255 1.420 0.2465
Cause of ESRD (others) 1.018 0.708 1.464 0.9218     a     a
Phosphorus 1.051 0.992 1.113 0.0918 1.252 1.089 1.440 0.0016 1.204 0.997 1.454 0.0535
Albumin 0.881 0.777 0.998 0.0473 0.444 0.323 0.611 <.0001 0.67 0.440 1.021 0.0622
eGFR at 6 months 0.987 0.981 0.993 <.0001 0.965 0.946 0.984 0.0003 0.999 0.977 1.022 0.9519
preemptive 0.883 0.696 1.120 0.3042 0.815 0.445 1.494 0.509 0.999 0.440 2.266 0.9978
Annual mean PM10 1.058 1.047 1.068 <.0001 1.049 1.014 1.084 0.0055 1.093 1.046 1.142 <.0001
Donor age 1.012 1.004 1.020 0.0039 0.993 0.971 1.016 0.5561 1.005 0.978 1.033 0.7132
Donor sex 1.16 0.954 1.410 0.137 1.066 0.633 1.795 0.8099 1.537 0.760 3.112 0.2319
Donor type (Deceased) 1.365 1.080 1.725 0.0091 1.724 0.884 3.361 0.1098 1.939 0.890 4.223 0.0955
ABO-incompatible 2.002 1.374 2.918 0.0003 1.897 0.549 6.558 0.3117 1.183 0.148 9.467 0.8743
Random Covariance estimates(θ) p-value Covariance estimates(θ) p-value Covariance estimates(θ) p-value
regions 0.05304   0.0078 0.0001   0.0128 0.03079   0.1866
  1. Data are presented as mean and standard deviation unless otherwise indicated. Covariates are given as measured at the time of kidney transplantation. BPR biopsy-proven rejection, DCGF death-censored graft failure, HLA human leukocyte antigen, ESRD end stage renal disease, DM diabetes mellitus, HTN hypertension, GN glomerulonephritis, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate. The multivariable model was adjusted for age, smoking, BMI, hypertension, DM, sex, HLA mismatch, cause of ESRD, serum phosphorus, albumin, eGFR at 6 months, preemptive, annual mean PM10, donor age, sex, donor type, ABO-incompatible and random effect (region)
  2. aThese are unestimable due to the lack of the events