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Table 1 Census tract, population and cause-specific death counts (and %) per exposure and covariate levels

From: Risk of cardiovascular mortality, stroke and coronary heart mortality associated with aircraft noise around Congonhas airport, São Paulo, Brazil: a small-area study

      Health outcome
Census tracts Population
2010a
CVD Stroke CHD
n n % n % n % n %
Exposure Noise levels
  ≤ 50 dB 1835 2,049,934 58.04 12,377 56.42 2055 57.07 4721 55.82
  > 50–55 dB 749 790,422 22.38 4751 21.66 822 22.83 1820 21.52
  > 55–60 dB 316 326,106 9.23 2096 9.56 325 9.03 823 9.73
  > 60–65 dB 205 207,354 5.87 1431 6.52 216 6.00 569 6.73
  > 65 dB 154 158,394 4.48 1281 5.84 183 5.08 524 6.20
Covariates MHDI 2010
 Q1 - the poorest 652 855,980 24.23 3726 16.99 656 18.22 1349 15.95
 Q2 652 809,818 22.93 5324 24.27 903 25.08 2040 24.12
 Q3 652 659,400 18.67 5023 22.90 787 21.86 1919 22.69
 Q4 652 614,414 17.39 4248 19.37 670 18.61 1691 20.00
 Q5 - the wealthiest 651 592,598 16.78 3615 16.48 585 16.25 1458 17.24
Total traffic density (vehicle/hour/m2)
 Q1 - lowest 652 722,466 20.45 2454 11.19 433 12.02 905 10.70
 Q2 652 796,238 22.54 4694 21.40 767 21.30 1846 21.83
 Q3 652 744,686 21.08 5096 23.23 833 23.13 1944 22.99
 Q4 652 652,568 18.47 4762 21.71 754 20.94 1849 21.86
 Q5 - highest 651 616,252 17.45 4930 22.47 814 22.60 1913 22.62
Black and Brown population  
  < average 1871 1,799,222 50.94 12,364 56.36 1963 54.51 4937 58.38
 Average - 2-fold average 515 608,980 17.24 4513 20.57 750 20.83 1676 19.82
  > 2-fold average 873 1,124,008 31.82 5059 23.06 888 24.66 1844 21.80
Smoking proxy
  ≤ 0.85 123 429,194 12.15 898 4.09 109 3.03 357 4.22
  > 0.85, 0.95 455 1,636,602 46.33 2668 12.16 458 12.72 1016 12.01
  > 0.95, 1.05 1503 1,119,786 31.70 10,030 45.72 1655 45.96 3907 46.20
  > 1.05, 1.15 985 215,012 6.09 6933 31.61 1171 32.52 2649 31.32
  > 1.15 193 131,616 3.73 1407 6.41 208 5.78 528 6.24
  Total 3259 3,532,210   21,936   3601   8457  
  1. a 2010 population estimates provided as this was the year of the census
  2. Note: CVD Cardiovascular disease. CHD Coronary heart disease. MHDI Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano Municipal (Municipal Human Development Index). Data sources for mortality data: SIM/SMS-SP; noise levels: INFRAERO and Prof Jules G. Slama (personal communication); Index of Human Development and total traffic density: Ribeiro et al 2019; Black and Brown population: IBGE