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Table 2 Characteristics of participants (n = 1379)

From: Maternal bisphenol urine concentrations, fetal growth and adverse birth outcomes: A population-based prospective cohort

  Total group
(n = 1379)
Maternal characteristics
 Age, mean (SD), years 30.5 (4.8)
 Parity, No. nulliparous (%) 839 (61.2)
 Educational level, No. low (%) 102 (7.4)
 Ethnicity, No. European (%) 846 (61.9)
 Folic acid supplement use, No. yes (%) 887 (80.6)
 Smoking, No. nonsmoking (%) 939 (75.5)
  First trimester, No. nonsmoking (%) 952 (78.4)
  Second trimester, No. nonsmoking (%) 1055 (88.7)
  Third trimester, No. nonsmoking (%) 1050 (89.3)
 Alcohol consumption, No. no alcohol use (%) 527 (42.6)
  First trimester, No. no alcohol use (%) 616 (50.5)
  Second trimester, No. no alcohol use (%) 777 (65.6)
  Third trimester, No. no alcohol use (%) 747 (63.5)
 Pre-pregnancy body mass index, median (95% range), kg/m2 22.7 (18.5, 34.9)
 Daily caloric intake, mean (SD), kcal 2078.1 (511.2)
Fetal growth characteristics
Second trimester
  Gestational age, median (95% range), weeks 20.4 (18.9, 22.7)
  Head circumference, mean (SD), mm 178.0 (12.0)
  Femur length, mean (SD), mm 33.2 (2.9)
  Estimated fetal weight, mean (SD), g 369.2 (72.7)
Third trimester
  Gestational age, median (95% range), weeks 30.4 (28.7, 32.6)
  Head circumference, mean (SD), mm 285.9 (11.5)
  Femur length, mean (SD), mm 57.5 (2.8)
  Estimated fetal weight, mean (SD), g 1620.5 (236.5)
Birth characteristics
 Males, No. (%) 696 (50.5)
 Gestational age, median (95% range), weeks 40.3 (36.7, 42.3)
 Birth weight, mean (SD), g 3453.9 (498.5)
 Birth length, mean (SD), cm 50.3 (2.3)
 Birth head circumference, mean (SD), cm 33.8 (1.7)
 Preterm birth, No. (%) 35 (2.5)
 Small size for gestational age, No. (%) 114 (8.3)
  1. Values are observed data and represent means (SD), medians (95% range), or number of subjects (valid %). SD standard deviation