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Table 3 Maternal pregnancy-averaged bisphenol concentrations and fetal growth measures

From: Maternal bisphenol urine concentrations, fetal growth and adverse birth outcomes: A population-based prospective cohort

  Fetal head circumference Fetal length Fetal weight
Effect estimate, SDS (95% Confidence Interval) p-value for interaction with gestational age Effect estimate, SDS (95% Confidence Interval) p-value for interaction with gestational age Effect estimate, SDS (95% Confidence Interval) p-value for interaction with gestational age
Total bisphenols − 0.10 (− 0.25, 0.06) 0.35 0.04 (− 0.10, 0.18) 0.59 0.06 (− 0.06, 0.18) 0.35
Bisphenol A −0.12 (− 0.27, 0.03) 0.22 0.03 (− 0.10, 0.17) 0.77 0.06 (− 0.06, 0.17) 0.25
Bisphenol S 0.18 (0.01, 0.34)* 0.15 0.01 (−0.15, 0.16) 0.93 0.05 (− 0.08, 0.18) 0.89
Bisphenol F −0.05 (− 0.22, 0.12) 0.65 − 0.13 (− 0.29, 0.02) 0.13 − 0.04 (− 0.17, 0.09) 0.40
  1. Main effects and p-values for interaction with gestational age at growth measurement obtained from linear mixed effects models. Main effects reflect the difference in fetal growth measures in SDS for an interquartile range increase in each natural log-transformed pregnancy-averaged bisphenol (in μmol/g creatinine). Models include fetal sex, maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, educational level, ethnicity, parity, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, daily caloric intake, folic acid supplement use, and gestational age at growth measurement. Models include an interaction term between exposure concentration and gestational age at growth measurement, a random intercept for each participant, and a random slope for gestational age at growth measurement. *p-value< 0.05
  2. SDS standard deviation scores